What is Cross Cultural Communication?
CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION
What is Cross Cultural Communication?. 5
Background to Cross-cultural Communication. 8
Basic Тerms. 10
Cultural Barriers to Effective Communication. 13
Other Cultures Are Not Like Yours. 14
Overcoming Language Barriers in Communication. 18
Misinterpretation of Communication. 20
Six Fundamental Patterns of Cultural Differences. 23
Aspects of Cross Cultural Communication. 28
Respecting Our Differences and Working Together 31
Cross cultural Communication Consultants. 35
Multicultural Communication Tips. 37
Basic Steps to Cultural Competence. 41
Successful Cross Cultural Communication. 44
Effective Cross Cultural Communication Skills. 47
Developing Awareness of Individual Cultures 51
Cross Cultural Communication Strategies. 53
Importance of Cross Cultural Communication in Business. 55
Cross Cultural Solutions for International Business. 61
Cross Cultural Advertising. 64
Language in Cross Cultural Advertising. 65
Communication Style in Cross Cultural Advertising. 66
Colours, Numbers and Images in Cross Cultural Advertising. 67
Cultural Values in Cross Cultural Advertising. 67
Cross Cultural Analysis in Public Relations. 68
Language and Culture. 69
Communication Channels. 71
PR Materials. 72
Cross Cultural Communication across Languages. 73
Ten Strategies for Success Abroad. 75
Results of Poor Cross Cultural Awareness. 78
Intercultural Etiquette. 82
Cross Cultural Dining Etiquette. 82
Cracking Cross Cultural Etiquette. 86
Cross Cultural Negotiation. 89
Intercultural Factors When Making International Presentations. 93
What is Cross Cultural Communication?
The term¨cross-cultural¨ implies interaction with persons of different cultural, ethnic, racial, gender, sexual orientation, religious, age and class backgrounds. Cross-cultural communication¨ is a process of exchanging, negotiating, and mediating one's cultural differences through language, non-verbal gestures, and space relationships. It is also the process by which people express their openness to an intercultural experience.
Clarke and Sanchez, 2001
Cross cultural communication is defined by Gotland University as “a process of exchanging, negotiating, and mediating one's cultural differences through language, non-verbal gestures, and space relationships.” Business communication is the exchange of messages related to companies through symbols, action and verbal words.
In the literature on cross-cultural communication, the terms ‘cross-cultural communication’, ‘intercultural communication’ and ‘cross-national communication’ are frequently used interchangeably. Although ‘cross-cultural communication’ and ‘intercultural communication’ can be treated synonymously, an important distinction needs to be made between ‘cross-cultural communication’ and ‘cross-national communication’.
Cross-national communication’ takes place across political or national borders while ‘cross-cultural communication’ takes place across cultures. Both terms have their usefulness. If one is talking about communications between a multinational organization and its subsidiaries located in other countries, either ‘cross-national communication’ or ‘cross-cultural communication’ can be used. However, if one is speaking of communications between colleagues working in a multicultural organization located in a certain country, the term ‘cross-cultural communication’ is obviously more appropriate. In this study, the term ‘cross-cultural communication’ is used.
Two words need to be defined: ‘culture’ and ‘communication’. As both have various meanings, depending on the intention of the writer or speaker, for present purposes their definitions are as follows.
Culture can be defined as a community’s shared values, attitudes, behavior and acts of communicating that are passed from one generation to the next. Communication means a goal-directed and context-bound exchange of meaning between two or more parties. In other words, communication takes place between people for a specific reason by a particular medium and in a particular environment. An American meets a Japanese to negotiate a business deal. This context in which the communication takes place can be either within the same culture or across different cultures. In the example given, the business negotiation obviously takes place across different cultures. The communication involved is therefore a culture-bound activity. To communicate means expressing the uniqueness of one’s cultural heritage, and this includes not only the verbal and non-verbal peculiarities but also the preferred medium and context of communication.
The scope for cross-cultural communication is extremely wide. It is a multidisciplinary field of study with roots in anthropology, sociology, psychology, and linguistics, among other disciplines.
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