J a-stems

:
  1. Middle English and Early New English consonant system.
  2. MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION
  3. Synthetic words
  4. .

These substantives are a special type of a-stems. Their root vowel undergoes mutation under the influence of an original -j- in the stem.

Substantives with an originally short root syllable have their final consonant lengthened; in substantives with an originally long root syllable and those with an originally short root syllable ending in -r- the final consonant is not lengthened and the nominative and accusative singular end in -e.

Examples of ja-stems: (1) masculine: bocere scholar, fiscere fisherman; (2) neuter: net net, bed bed, wite punishment.

ja-stems correspond to Russian substantives of the types , and to Latin substantives of the types gladius sword, officium office.

 

wa-stems are another special type of -stems. The nominative and accusative singular of the masculine substantives and the nominative and accusative singular and plural of the neuter ones end in -u.

The final -uis sometimes weakened to -o:bearo, bealo.

Examples of wa-stems: (I) masculine: snaw snow, custom, (2) neuter: searu armour, treow tree.

 

-stems are all feminine. The form of the nominative depends on two factors: the number of syllables and the shortness or length of the root syllable. Monosyllabic substantives with a short root syllable take in this case the ending -u; monosyllabic ones with a long root syllable and dissyllabic ones have no ending at all.

Examples of -stems: caru care, lufu love, ides woman.

-stems correspond to Russian substantives of the type and to Latin 1st declension substantives, as silva wood.

 

Among i-stems there are substantives of all three genders. The masculine and neuter i-stems do not much differ in their declension from the -stems, and the feminine ones do not much differ from the -stems. The root vowel has undergone mutation. Among the masculine there are also several names of tribes which are only used in the plural: Engle Angles, Seaxe Saxons, Mierce Mercians, Norphymbre Northumbrians, Dene Danes, etc. Examples of i-stems: (1) masculine: mere sea, lake, mete food, bite bite (2) neuter: spere spear, (3)feminine cwen woman.

The i-stems correspond to Russian substantives of the type and to Latin ones of the 3rd declension, like finis end.



 

Among the u-stems there are masculine and feminine substantives. The form of the nominative and accusative singular of these substantives depends on the length or shortness .of their root syllable. Substantives having a short root syllable have in the nominative and accusative singular the ending -u; those with a long one have no ending at all.

Examples of u-stems: (1) masculine: wudu wood, medu honey, mead, weald forest, sumor summer; (2) feminine: nosu nose, flor floor.

u-stems correspond to Latin substantives of the 4th declension, such as fructus fruit.

 

WEAK DECLENSION

Masculine n-stems end in the nominative singular in -a, feminine and neuter ones in -e; in the neuter substantives the accusative, in accordance with the general rule, is the same as the norni- native. No other difference between the genders is found.

Examples of n-stems: (1) masculine: guma man, wita wise man, steorra star, moon; (2) feminine eorfie earth, heorte heart, sunne sun; (3) neuter eare ear.

n-stems correspond to Russian substantives like and to Latin 3rd declension substantives like nomen name.

In all Germanic languages there is a type of substantives which differs in its morphological structure from all other types. These are the root stems, i.e. substantives which never had any stem- forming suffix, so the case endings were added on immediately to the root.

This type of stem is represented in various Indo-European languages.

In OE there are a number of substantives of all three genders which wholly or partly belong to the root-stem declension.

In three case forms: in the dative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural there is the result of mutation.

The OE root stems correspond to Latin 3rd declension substantives, as pes, pedis foot; pax, pads peace.

...

 

r-stems are represented by a few masculine and feminine substantives denoting relationship: fseder father, bropor brother, modor mother, dohtor daughter, sweostor sister. The dative singular of these substantives usually has mutation.

r-stems correspond to the Russian substantives , and to Latin 3rd declension substantives, as pater and mater.

 


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