1. A) Read the following extract from an essay by V. Belinsky and summarize it in English.
  2. A) Travelling and holiday-making are in a way related to each other. Read the following dialogue for enlarging your topical vocabulary (A student of English; teacher).
  4. Adjectives and Adverbs
  6. By grammatical forms we understand variants of a word having the same lexical meaning but differing grammatically.
  7. C. Find an appropriate equivalent for each modal verb in the articles from the contract below and translate them faithfully into Ukrainian.
  8. Chronological division in the history of English: the Early New English period.
  9. D. Ways Of Conveying the Meanings of Subjective Modality
  10. E. Grammatical Modality and Means of Expressing It

Apart from the aforementioned there are four more modal verbs in English, which practically lack direct lexical equivalents in Ukrainian. These modal verbs are: shall, will, would and partly should, the latter being only historically the past form of shall, which, like the modal verb will and would,may sometimes have implicit meanings but lacking explicit lexical equivalents in Ukrainian. This is partly explained by the complicated nature of shall, will, would and should, which mostly combine their modal meanings with that of the auxiliary one, pertained to some of these verbs.

A. Shall in its modal meaning is most of all used with the second and third persons plural and sometimes (though mostly in interrogative sentences) with the first person singular and plural. Depending on the intention of the speaker, the modal verb shall may express in combination with the notional infinitive the following main meanings:

1. Will or intentionwhich can be conveyed in Ukrainian either with the help of the verb or through the logical stress on the verb that implicitly expresses this meaning plus the corresponding intonation (prosodic means) of the sentence. Cf.:

Shall Itell you how I felt as , ,

mate of my high school stu- ,
dents ? (. Schimmels) ?

The principal clause shall I tell'in this sentence has the implicit

contextual meaning corresponding to the Ukrainian / , ...?

A similar meaning of wish or will of the person addressed has the modal verb shaWwith the infinitive in the following sentence:

Their eyes met. Shall ,

serve? said Doris. (Maugham) () ? - .

Shall I serve? can also be translated as /, ? or /  ?

The modal meaning of the verb shall may often incorporate some
other meanings inherent in the lexical meaning of the infinitive with
which it is used. Hence, different explicit variants may sometimes be
suggested in the target language for one and the same modal word-
group. The modal verb shaWwith the infinitive may also express in the
simple or composite sentences some other meanings:
2. Promise or promised assurance, consent:
You shall entertain as much ... ,

as you please. (B.Shaw) ,

Shall we say four pounds ()

week? (D.Lessing)


3. Warning, threat or resolute demand which is usually conveyed in Ukrainian through the imperative verb forms. Cf.:

I shall want your account of ,

how this happened. (B.Shaw) .

You shall not have it - not ͳ -

ever. I will take care of that. .
(Ibid.) .

4. Compulsion, obligation, order or demand (both in simple and composite sentences), which is also often conveyed through the imperative mood forms of the Ukrainian verb:

You shall not run away before He ,

you answer. (Ibid.) . / ,

You shall not stay another

hour in my house. Get out! . ! (Dreiser)

The modal verb shall, expressing compulsion or obligation according to law or a prearranged agreement, is mostly used in texts of different regulations, proclamations, charters, treaties, contracts, etc. The verb s/ia//forms with the infinitive a sense unit, which is conveyed in Ukrainian through the verb-predicate forming a logical centre in the sentence. For example:

The General Assembly shall '

consist of all the Members of the ' United Nations. (Charter of the . United Nations)

The Journal of the General As- ³

sembly shall be used in the OOH
working languages. (Ibid.) .

It should be added in conclusion that in other cases the use of the modal verb shall is restricted to formal or even archaic speech style. In some context the meaning of shall may coincide with that of the modal verb dare as in the following sentence:


After such a picturesque love ϳ

affair in high society, who shall say that romance is dead? (Dreiser) .

? . Will as a modal verb together with the infinitive, with which it forms a word-group, may also express different meanings, the main of which are volition, insistence, determination, intention. The modal verb will is used with all persons in singular and plural, never losing its auxiliary function (to express the future tense). In a number of cases the modal meanings of will may coincide with those expressed by its past form would. As a result, their lexical equivalents in Ukrainian may be close or even identical as well.

The modal verb willmay be endowed in different contextual environment with various meanings, the main of them being the following:

1. Volition, demandor assurancewhich is expressed in Ukrainian through the corresponding verb, stative or logical/emphatic stress:

I will not have these repeated / ,

scenes within hearing of the serv-

ants. (. Sha w) / /.

will be another kind ofpresi- /

dent, said Constantinescu. (Kyiv , -

Post) .

2. Will as well as assurance or promise:

Mrs.Warren: And you'll be Miccic :

good to your poor old mother for
it, won't you?  .

Vivie: I will, dear. (B.Shaw) ³: , .

Trench: I will save you the :

trouble. (Ibid.) .

The answer of Vivie / will contains assurance and promise for the future, because of which its explicit form in Ukrainian is only . A similar construction is displayed in the second sentence in which Trench assures (promises) the poor man (Sartorius) to relieve him of his trouble.

3. Determination, perseverance or promising threat which is often rendered through lexically explicit Ukrainian verbs, expressing also the future tense at the same time:

I will examine them (- (

counts and money) and settle with ) . you presently. (B.Shaw)

will prosecute you myself. .


I will survive. I will escape. .

will not give in. (Dreiser) , .

4. Willingness, consent(in conditional clauses after follow
ing the conjunction if):

If you will tell me all about it -in a chatty way, I can communi- , cateittoLadyRoxdale". (. Shaw) .

The meaning of the modal verb mil (will tell) in the sentence above may also be expressed in Ukrainian through a logical or emphatic stress laid upon the notional verb (predicate): / , ...

As has been pointed out, the modal meaning of the verb will may go parallel with that of its past form would. This is observed when will would are used to express the following meanings:

5. Polite requestwhich may be expressed as follows:
Will you walk into my /-

parlour? (Dreiser)  ?

10. Determination or persistence, which is expressed with the help of set constructions like / (he, we) won't/would not. This modal meaning is rendered into Ukrainian by means of the verb / , / as well:
6. Suppositionwhich is usually expressed in Ukrainian with the help of modal words or by means of the subjunctive mood of the predicate verb:

I want you to do a most terrible favour. Will you? Will you please? (D.Parker)

When would you like to come over? (Galsworthy)

I expect he will have had his tea. (Smith)

This will be the place where they reposed. (W.Maken)

Well, this would interest you. (Fitzgerald)

, . ? , ?

() / ?

, /' .

/ , .

/ .

no one will follow you, I'm sure. (Hudges)

Ten or eleven, the Sheriff said, I won't stand for it. (Saroyan)

Several times Eckerman tried to get away, but Gothe would not let him go. (Maugham)

, , .

, - , - .

, ( ) .


11. Preference choice and other meanings as in the set expressions I'd rather/I would/I'd sooner, which are usually rendered into Ukrainian with or without the help of the subjunctive mood forms plus such adverbs of manner as , /:
. Will and would are used in many set/idiomatic expressions having both subjunctive and non-subjunctive meaning:

The range of modal meanings, which the modal verbs will and would may express, is not exhausted by those enumerated above.

7. Habitual volitional actions which are conveyed as follows:
After this accident he will ϳ

lock himself and not show off.
(Ibid.) .

In the afternoon he would go out alone and walk for hours. (Galsworthy)

ϳ , , .

8. Resistance to an action referring to the present or to the future, which is observed only in English. Consequently, it has no corresponding modal expression in Ukrainian. Cf.:

Help him, please. The door , , .

will not unlock. (Jacobs) ...it (rain) blinded the windscreen and the wiper wouldn't work. (Greene)


... , ( ).

9. Conditionwhich is equivalent^ expressed in Ukrainian through the subjunctive or conditional mood forms in subordinate clauses of real and unreal condition:

If he wouldn't mind. I would (

love to come. (Maxwell) ),

You may go, if you will, but / ,

So we had better go to supper, said Mary. (Joyce)

Mother said she would much rather watch him fish and not try to fish herself. (Leacock)

He will/would never set the Thames on fire. (Proverb)

He will die as he lived. (Ibid.)

He who would catch fish must not mind getting wet. (Ibid.)

He would give a penny for the young fellow's thoughts. (Galsworthy)

You'd make a saint swear. > (Ibid.)

, - .

, . , .

³ ./ ³ .

() .

- / - .

³ . , .

/ .


There may be some others, as for example: 12. To express favour, benevolence:

He wants to know ... if you'll ³ ... .

invite Daisy to your house some
afternoon ... (Fitzgerald) ...

D. Should as a modal verb is very often used both in reference to present and to future (and to express the subjunctive meaning). It conveys a variety of meanings some of which may be close to the meanings of the modal verbs ought to, have to, to be to, must. Thus, the sentence I'm sorry. I shouldn't have said that. (Cusack) may be translated, when out of its broader context, as follows:

1) : / : .

2) : .

3) : .

There may be one more variant of the sentence with the intonational/supersegmental expression of this modal meaning: / , / .

The most common direct meaning of the modal (non-subjunctive orfuture-in-the-pastform) verb shouldIn Ukrainian corresponds to the statives , , or to the modal word and phrase / . These equivalents (depending on the contextual environment) are also mostly employed in order to express the following meanings of the modal verb should:

1. Obligation/moral obligation, necessity.

"What do you think he should , -, /

do? (Trevor) ?

You should have told me so / -

before. (. Sha w) .

2. Regret, grief, sorrow:

"/ shouldn't have said that. /

(Cusack) .

The structure of the Ukrainian sentence here may also be different and not correspond to its English original above: ?/! .

3. Advice/recommendation, admonition:

You shouldn't have consulted /

, Esme. (S.Hill) , .

You shouldn't talk bitter like

that, Albert, Miss Jackson re- , , - -
proved. (K. . Prichard) .

The meaning of the modal verb should in this sentence may also be rendered through the imperative sentence: He , ...

4. Supposition/suggestion, which can be expressed in Ukrainian with the help of modal words or particles, as in the following sentences:

Perhaps I should introduce

friend Cocane to you. ?.../
(B.Shaw) ,

It should be about five now. /

(Cusack) '.

The modal verb shouldin the first sentence may also be translated through the particle : , ?

5. Doubt, indignation and some other emotions expressed
through the modal verb shouldmay be also rendered with the help of
some Ukrainian particles and the implicit meaning of the sentence:

Sartorius: I don't know. How .

should I? (B.Shaw) / ?

Why should I wait? (Ibid.) ?

6. Surprise, indignation or pleasure (with the indefinite or
perfect infinitive following the modal verb should). These meanings of
the modal verb shouldare mostly rendered in Ukrainian through the
logical emphatic stress, intonation, particles or through some modal

God forbid that I should ever /

say a good word for you! -

(LPHartley) !

don't know why should I ,

think about him. (W.Trevor) .

shouldn't have done that. () .

(B.Shaw) ( .)

The modal verb should m these same sentences above may


also be understood and conveyed, when taken isolated from the text, in some other ways. For example, in the second sentence (under point 6) the meaning of should may also be expressed in Ukrainian through the modal verb or :

I don't know why should I He ,

think about him. (Trevor) .

The modal verb should in the third (last) sentence above may also be translated with the help of the modal word :

I shouldn't have done that.

(B.Shaw) .

7. The modal verb should may also express reproval or protest, disappointment, etc., which may be expressed in Ukrainian with the help of the modal words or statives , , or with the help of some modal particles. Cf.:

I don't know why sometimes He ,

should be sneered at. /
(Galsworthy) .

She really should have worn /

the coat. (Cusack) .

In the last sentence above the meaning of should have worn. when under logical or emphatic stress, may be expressed in Ukrainian via the modal words / and the particles , : - /- .Hence, before rendering the meaning of the modal verb should or any other modal verb belonging to those of indistinct or polysemantic contextual meaning, as shall, will, would, the following factors have to be taken into account:

1) the meaning and nature of the modal verb itself;

2) the lexical meaning of the infinitive with which this modal verb forms a predicative unit;

3) the contextual environment of the predicative unit and

4) the traditional preference/choice of the modal verb in the national/target language.

Consequently, in case of the modal verb should preference may often be given not to its seemingly closer Ukrainian equivalent , as it could naturally be expected, but to its stronger modal word/stative , (cf. , , ), which is more common in our language.

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