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INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATIONS

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It is known that the pioneers of aviation were men of different nationalities and of many countries: Deadalus and Leonardo de Vinci, Lilienthal and Bleriot, Mozhaiski and the Wright brothers and others. So the aeroplane is a creature of no one country's knowledge and efforts. A peculiarity of air transport made it clear from the start that the development of aviation was impossible without international agreement. That's why the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was created. It happened in 1944 at a conference of 52 nations held in Chicago. At present there are about 200 member States in ICAO. Its headquarters is in Canada, Montreal. The working languages of ICAO are English, French, Spanish and Russian. Russia has been the member of ICAO since 1970 .

It is very difficult to describe all of ICAO's activities. ICAO solves many problems on the international level. ICAO has a coordination agency. One of its purposes is to gather knowledge widely scattered among nations and to standardize the equipment and operational techniques used in air navigation in and over the territories of its member-states. The main task of ICAO is the flight safety. The aims of the Organization are spelt out in Article 44 of the Chicago Convention. These are to develop the principles and techniques of international air navigation, to plan and develop international air transport; to encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes; to encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for international civil aviation, and so on.

To ensure the safe and efficient worldwide aviation operation ICAO has developed technical specifications forming the basis for uniform rules and procedures. Standardization affects the air-worthiness of aircraft, facilities and services required for aircraft operations elsewhere. These include: aerodromes, communications, navigational aids, meteorology, air traffic services, .search and rescue, information services. ICAO is doing much to make the air more clear. There are special standards to reduce noise by designing new quieter aircraft. ICAO has set up standards for air crew and controllers as well. IСAO is also doing much to prepare and train aviation specialists.



The second in its importance organization after ICAO for international civil aviation is IATA - International Air Transport Association founded in 1945. It is one of the international civil aviation organizations uniting world airlines. IATA is concentrated on the safety problem. Its main objective is to contribute to safe and regular development of civil aviation and to cooperation of world airlines. Its Technical Committee deals with the problem of safety, standardization of aviation equipment, training of flying personnel, communications, meteorology, aerodromes, navigational aids, etc. All IATA members report the data on flying, taxying and other ground incidents including maintenance deficiencies. Flight safety experts, aviation specialists and scientists of the member States investigate these accidents to prevent them in future. Russia is a member of IATA, it conforms to the IATA's standards, procedures and documents which is of great importance for studying and solving the problems which IATA deals with.

International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Association (IFATCA) was founded in 1961 with the purpose to enable the national associations to study and solve the problems for the development of air traffic control art and to create a better understanding among the controllers serving international aviation.

Eurocontrol is the European organization working for air navigation safety. It was created in 1963 for better service of European airspace. Some European countries have signed the agreement of cooperation for the safety of air navigation and organized common air traffic services in the upper airspace.

 

Exercises

 

I. Ответьте на вопросы:

 

1. What is ICAO ?

2. When and where was ICAO created ?

3. How many member States are there in ICAO ?

4. Is Russia a member State of ICAO ?

5. How long has Russia been the member of ICAO ?

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6. Where is the ICAO's headquarters ?

7. What are the working languages of ICAO ?

8. What is the main task of ICAO ?

9. Where are the main aims of ICAO spelt out ?

10. How does ICAO ensure the safe and efficient aviation operation ?

11. What for are the uniform rules and procedures required ?

12. What other international Civil Aviation Organizations do you know ?

13. What is IATA ? IFATCA ? Eurocontrol ?

 

II. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на словообразующие элементы:

different – difference – differently

difficult – difficulty

active – activity

standard – standardize – standardization

equip – equipment

facility – facilitate

efficient – efficiency – efficiently

require – requirement

reduce – reduction

control – controller

investigate – investigation – investigator

prevent – prevention – preventive

 

III. Найдите в тексте эквивалент следующим словосочетаниям:

 

воздушный транспорт, безопасность полета, конструкция самолета, навигационные средства, правила воздушного движения, авиационные специалисты, проблема безопасности, информационная служба, мировые авиакомпании, воздушная навигация, полет самолета.

 

IV. Переведите на английский язык:

 

1. Ясно, что невозможно обеспечить безопасный полет без международного сотрудничества.

2. ИКАО была создана в 1944 г. на Конференции 52 наций в Чикаго.

3. Штаб-квартира ИКАО находится в Канаде, в Монреале.

4. В настоящее время в ИКАО около 200 стран – членов ИКАО.

5. Россия не была членом ИКАО до 1970 г.

6. ИКАО решает много проблем, но главная из них - безопасность полетов.

7. Основная задача ИКАО – стандартизировать оборудование и технику, используемые в воздушной навигации над территориями ее стран – участников.

8. Существуют общие правила полета и процедуры, которые все страны – участники должны соблюдать.

9. Постоянный орган ИКАО - Совет.

10. Первым президентом ИКАО был Эдвард Вона.

11. Все авиационные проблемы выражены (даны) в 18 Приложениях к Конвенции.

12. ИКАО много делает для подготовки и тренировки авиационных специалистов, как пилотов, так и диспетчеров.

13. Имеется несколько других международных авиационных организаций гражданской авиации.

14. Члены ИАТА сообщают данные о катастрофах, которые произошли в их стране.

15. Эксперты ИАТА расследуют эти катастрофы, чтобы предотвратить их в будущем.

16. ИФАТКА помогает всем диспетчерам, обслуживающим международную авиацию, лучше понимать друг друга.

17. Евроконтроль был создан для лучшего обслуживания европейского воздушного пространства.

 

 


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