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So, in short, frame – this is a cognitive structure in the phenomenological field of a man

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Frame consists of the topic (the top) and the slots or terminals which are filled with propositions. This cognitive structure is organized around some concept, but contrary to trivial set of associations these units contain only the most essential, typical and potentially possible information which is associated with this concept.

Besides, it is not excluded, that frames have more or less conventional nature and that is why they are able to determine and describe things which are typical or characteristic for the given socium or society with its etnic and socio-cultural peculiarities. Let say a frame “family” is differently organized in the conscience of inhabitants of South Korea village, German town, Dagestan aul or Indian village. The slots are also different in this case, their number varies and content has different filling (for instance the roles and status of the family members will be different as well as their rights and obligations, attitudes to the female and male relatives and so on).

Scenario, or scenario- frame contains standard sequence of events, conditioned by some recurrent situation [Schank, Abelson 1977; Bower e. a. 1979]. Scenarios organize behavior and its interpretation. The characteristic features of the scenarios are: situational attachments and conventionality [Гончаренко, Шингарева 1984: 14; Минский 1979; Шенк 1980; Романов 1988: 30; ван Дейк 1989; Кубрякова и др. 1996: 181—182]. Scenarios describe sequence of scenes, events or actions, which have completely or partially ritualized nature, for example, of higher society (secular), religious and military ceremonies [см.: Schank, Abelson 1977: 63].

Scenario can be used either for behavioral purposes or for the cognitive ones: in the first case a man really plays it by constructing his behavior in accordance with the concrete scenario in the second case a man plays it mentally [Lehnert 1980: 87], for example, by interpreting a text. The topic of scenario is a kind of activity which refers an aim to the way of its reaching. The slots are the models of separate actions, their sequence and order. So, frame can be viewed a as a net consisting of the knots and connections between them. The “upper levels” of the frames are clearly determined as soon as they are formed by the notions which are always fair for the supposed situation. The lower levels have many special tops- terminal, which must be filled with the characteristic examples or data.



 

Лекция 4

Polysemy, homonyms, synonyms and antonyms.

Plan.

Polysemy and the reasons for existence of polysemantic words.


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