1. Absolute synonyms – coinciding in all their shades of meaning and in all their stylistic characteristics
2. Abbreviation – the process and the result of forming a word out of the initial elements of a word combination
3. Acrolect – a creole variety that is relatively similar to the standart language from which it arose(происходить arise)
4. Acronim - An abbreviation formed by (usually initial) letters taken from a word or series of words
5. Adstratum influence – the mutual influence of two equally dominant languages on each other(the influence of English and French on each other in Montreal)
6. Affix – A bound morpheme that modifies the meaning (syntactic) category of the stem in some way
7. Affixation – the process that attaches the affix to a base
8. African American Vernacular English – a cover term describing distinctive varieties of English spoken by Americans of African descent
9. Allolex -
10. Allomorph – a positional variant of a morpheme occurring in a specific environment
11. Ameridian languages – languages spoken by the aboriginal peoples of north, South and Central America
12. Antonyms – words or phrases that are opposites with respect to some component of their meaning
13. Archaic word – words are moribund, partly or fully out of circulation, rejected by the living language
14. Areas of assimilation –
15. Argo- specially restricted language that uses the definite group of people
16. Assimilation - linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjacent sound
17. Back formation – a word formation process that creates a new word by removing a real or supposed affix from another word in the language
18. Base – the form of the word to which an affix is added
19. Basilect – a Creole variety that shows the least influence from the standard language from which it arose
20. Basic vocabulary –
21. Bound morpheme -
22. Blending – forming a word that formed from parts of two or more other words
23. Borrowing - a source of language change that involves adopting aspects of one language into another.
24. Broadening of meaning - the result of a considerable change in range of meaning by widening the word combinability
25. Calque - itself is a loanword from a French noun, and derives from the verb "calquer" that means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a new lexeme in the target language.
26. Clipping – a word-formation process that shortens a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables
27. Cognates - words of different languages that have descended from a common source, as shown by systematic phonetic correspondence.
28. Collocability – the power of a word to appear in various combination
29. Combinability - the ability of linguistic elements to combine in speech.
30. Complex lexico-grammatical partial homonyms –Complex word – a word that contains two or more morphemes
31. Compounding - the combination of lexical categories(N,A,V,P) to form a larger word
32. Compound derivative
33. Componental analysis - the representation of a word’s intension in terms of smaller semantic components called features.
34. Composition – such word-formation where the target word is formed by combining two or more stems
35. Compound word – a word made up of two or more words
36. Concept - a generalized reverberation in the human consciousness of the properties of the objective reality learned in the process of the latter’s cognition.
37. Conceptual criterion of synonymy – define synonyms as words of the same category of parts of speech conveying the same concept but differing either in shades of meaning or in stylistics characteristics
38. Connotation - supplementary meaning or complementary semantic and/or stylistic shade which is added to the word’s main meaning (denotation) and which serves to express all sorts of emotional, expressive, evaluative overtones.
39. Context - the semantically complete passage of written speech sufficient to establish the meaning of a given word (phrase)
40. Contracted compounds –
41. Conversion – a word-formation process that assigns an already existing word to a new syntactic category
42. Creole – a language that originated as a pidgin and has become established as a first language in a speech community
43. Criterion of interchangeability of synonyms
44. Degradation –
45. Denotative component
46. Derivational compound
48. Derivation – in morphology , a word-formation process by which a new word is built from a sterm – usually through the addition of an affix – that changes the word class (basic meaning) of the word
49. Diachrony - the historical development of the system of language as the object of linguistic investigation.
50. Distribution – the set of elements with which an item can coocuur
51. Dialect – a regional or society variety of a language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language
52. Dominant synonym – central word in synonymic groups whose meaning is equal to the denotation common to all the synonymic group
53. Elevation –
54. Endocentric compound – a compound word in which one member identifies the general class to which the meaning of the entire word belongs
55. Exocentric compound - a compound whose meaning does not follow from the meaning of its parts
56. English Proper element - has no cognates in any other languages
57. Etymological doublets - words, that are from the same etymological source, but different in phonemic shape and in meaning.
58. Etymological triplets - groups of three words of common roof
59. Etymology - is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.
60. Euphemism – a word or phrase that is less direct than the taboo word it replaces and is considered to be more socially acceptable
61. Free morpheme – a morpheme that can be a word by itself
62. Full lexical homonyms
63. Generalization –
64. Germanic element
65. Grammatical adaptation - system of the grammatical forms peculiar to it as a part of speech.
66. Grammatical meaning - The meaning that is conveyed by word order and other grammatical signals.
67. Historism – words denoting objects and phenomena which are, things of the past and no longer exist
68. Homographs -
69. Homonyms - Homonymy the phenomenon that one form has two or more meanings and/or syntactic functions.
70. Homonyms proper
72. Hybrid - a word different element of which are of etymologically different origin.
73. Hyponym - the word the meaning of which may be said to be included in that of another word
74. Hyperonym - a word that is more generic than a given word
75. Hyperonymy - the semantic relation between a more general word and a more specific word. Tree is a hyperonym of oak, because the set of trees includes the set of oaks.
76. Ideographic synonyms – words conveying the same concept but differing in shades of meaning
77. Idiomatic compounds
78. Indo-European element are meant words of roots common to all or most languages of the indo-European group.
79. Infix – an affix that occurs within a base
80. Initial shortening
81. International words
82. Jargon – vocabulary peculiar to some field
83. Lexeme - a word in all its meanings and forms, i.e. a word as a structural element of language.
84. Lexical meaning - the material meaning of a word, i.e. the meaning of the main material part of the word, which reflects the concept the given word expresses and the basic properties of the thing the word denotes.
85. Lexicography - the process of compiling or studying lexical recourses and dictionaries, either monolingual or multilingual.
86. Lexicon - a speaker’s mental dictionary< which contains information about the syntactic properties, meaning, and phonological representation of a language’s words.
87. Lingua franca
88. Levels of analysis of a polysemantic word
89. Main meaning
90. Meaning - the message or content that a sign or utterance conveys.
92. Metaphor - the understanding of one concept in terms of another, sometimes responsible for language change.
93. Metonymy - a transfer based on the association of contiguity.
94. Monosemy - the existence within one word of only one meaning.
95. Morpheme – the smallest unit of language that carries information about meaning of function
96. Morphological compounds –
97. Native and borrowed affixes –
98. Native element –
99. Narrowing of meaning –
100. Neologisms – a word or a word combination that appears or is specially coined to name a new object or express a new concept
101. Neutral compounds –
102. Non idiomatic compounds –
103. Nonce word (occasional words) – a word which cannot be considered a permanent member of the word-stock : although it is formed after existing patterns , it is not characterized by general currency but is an individual innovation introduced for a special occasion.
104. Non-productive affixes –
105. Obsolete words – words which have completely gone out of use
106. Onomatopoeia –
107. Paradigm – the system of the grammatical forms of a word
108. Paradigmatic relations –
109. Partial lexical homonyms –
110. Pidgin – a lingua franca with a highly simplified grammatical structure that has emerged as a mixture of two of more languages and has no native speakers
111. Phonetic adaptation –
112. Phraseological unit – it can be described as the most picturesque, colourful and expressive part of the language’s vocabulary (quotations, odd and grotesque images, figures, personalities – dark horse)
113. Polysemy - diversity of meanings, the existence within one word of several connected meanings as the result of the development and changes of its original meaning.
114. Prefix - an affix that is attached to the front of its base.
115. Productive affixes - affixes which take part in deriving new words in this particular period of language development.
116. Productivity- 1) the ability of being used to form (after specific patterns) new, occasional or potential words which are readily understood by the speakers of a language 2) regular use in speech as the element’s principal form of existence
117. Proverb – a short well-known expression that states popular wisdom , a general truth or a moral lesson in a concise and imaginative way
119. Referent - the set of entities to which a word or expression refers.
120. Remnant suffix
122. Root –
123. Root word - in a complex word , the morpheme that remains after all affixes are removed
124. Second degree context
125. Secondary meaning
126. Semantic adaptation - adjustment to the system of meaning of the vocabulary
127. Semantic criterion of synonymy – define synonyms as words with the same denotative component but differing in connotations or in connotative components
128. Semantic narrowing - the process in which the meaning of a word becomes less general or less inclusive than its historically earlier meaning.
129. Semantic structure - is a fancy term for an organization that represents meaning. For example, an English sentence is a semantic structure
130. Semantics - the study of the meaning of linguistic structures.
131. Seme – the smallest semantic component of meaning
132. Semi affixes
135. Simple lexico-grammatical partial homonyms
136. Synchrony - a conventional isolation of a certain stage in the development of language as the object of linguistic investigation
137. Slang - language of a high colloquial style, considered as below the level of standard educated speech, and consisting either of new words or of current words employed in some special sense.
138. Sound imitation
140. Stages of assimilation
141. Standard English - refers to whatever form of the English language is accepted as a national norm in an Anglophone country.
142. Stem – the base to which an inflectional affix is added
143. Stylistic synonyms – conveying the same concept but differing in stylistics characteristics
144. Suffix - an affix that is attached to the end of its base.
145. Synonyms – words that are similar to meaning but different in writings
146. Syntactic compound
147. Syntagmatic relations - the symantic structure of the word is analysed in its linear relationships with neighbouring words in connected speech. In the other words, the semantic characteristics of the word are observed, described and studied on the basis of its typical contexts
148. Taboo – expressions that are seen as offensive and are therefore often euphemized
149. Term - is a word or a word-group which is specifically employed by a particular branch of science, technology, tarde or the arts to convey a concept peculiar to this particular activity.
151. Translation loans - A form of borrowing from one language to another whereby the semantic components of a given term are literally translated into their equivalents in the borrowing language.
152. Transliteration - is a subset of the science of hermeneutics. It is a form of translation, and is the practice of converting a text from one script into another.
154. Types of connotation - properties, relations, and chunks.
155. Valency – the potential ability of words to occur with other words
156. Variant – one of set of several possible forms that can be used to express the same function of meaning
157. Vocabulary - the totality free form found in language.
158. Word - the smallest free form found in language
159. Word building -
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