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Модуль 12.6. Примеры творческого подхода к новым коммуникационным технологиям

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Рассмотрим следующие примеры:

1. В 1994 году профессор Томас Найсли из колледжа Линчбург в Вирджинии обнаружил, что некоторые вычисления на новом микропроцессоре «Пентиум» были ошибочными. Он проверил свои вычисления на нескольких компьютерах и везде последовательно обнаруживал ошибку. Когда он связался с производителем «Пентиумов», «Интелом», ему не ответили. В отчаянии Найсли обратился в сеть Интернет и спросил у других пользователей, нет ли у них таких же проблем. Через шесть дней «Интел» ответил на обращение Найсли. Хотя компания сперва настаивала на том, что проблема эта очень незначительна, растущее беспокойство в обществе и падение акций на бирже уверило их в обратном. Через два месяца после первого звонка Найсли в «Интел» во всех «Пентиумах» стали бесплатно заменять микросхемы (Wresch, 1996).

2. В основном информационная революция не затронула бедное население, хотя есть и некоторые исключения. Несколько Интернет-терминалов были открыты для общественного доступа и установлены в Санта-Монике в Калифорнии. Их цель была дать возможность бездомным людям поговорить о своей жизни и проблемах. Отвечая на вопросы «Почему вы не работаете?», бездомные назвали в числе своих проблем: а) негде принять душ и сменить одежду и б) нет возможности охранять их скудную собственность, пока они находятся на работе. Как только общество осознало их проблемы (о них не знали раньше), городские власти и Армия спасения отвела специальные помещения и установила душевые, стиральные машины и шкафчики (Wresch, 1996).

3. В мае 1998 полиция в Пулмане, штат Вашингтон, обратилась к общественности, попросив опознать студентов, которые принимали участие в беспорядках в Вашингтонском государственном университете. Они открыли web-сайт и поместили в нём 40 фотографий, сделанных офицерами полиции, журналистами и просто прохожими. На этот сайт пришло 12 000 отзывов в первые же два дня, и более 100 предполагаемых бунтовщиков были идентифицированы (Notebook, 1998).

4. Роман Майкла Джойса 1987 года «Полдень, Легенда» – это история о рекламисте, который решил, что попавшая в аварию ма­шина, которую он только что увидел, принадлежала его бывшей жене. Этот роман является классикой в жанре художественного гипертекста. Это не книга, а скорее программа, в которой читатель сразу вникает в хитрые взаимосвязи героев. Роман построен явно в нелинейном изложении. Эта программа мешает любым попыткам читателя понять сюжет насколько возможно ясно. Защитники жанра считают, что чтение это напоминает настоящий диалог и переживание. А противники называют весь роман «несмешной цифровой постмодернистской шуткой» (Lillington, 1998).



 

 

Заключение

 

Всё это снова приводит нас к вопросу: «Зачем изучать психологию, в особенности когнитивную психологию СМИ?». В сущности, масс-медиа предлагают нам опыт, который возникает в результате взаимодействия нашего сознания с содержанием СМИ. СМИ воздействуют на наше сознание: они дают нам идеи, изменяют наши установки, рассказывают, что собой представляет окружающий нас мир. Эти построения в нашем сознании (то есть наша воспринимаемая реальность) превращаются в каркас, на основе которого мы создаём интерпретации нашего опыта в целом. Таким образом, чтение газет, просмотр телепередач, прослушивание музыки и радиопередач – всё это по большей части когнитивные феномены.

В каком-то смысле продукция СМИ – это искусство, творческая выдумка. Но как когда-то сказал Пикассо: «Искусство – это ложь, сквозь которую мы видим правду». То же самое верно и применительно ко СМИ. Участие в создании передачи – это игра, говорил Оскар Уальд: «Я люблю игру актёров. Она намного реальнее жизни».

То же мы могли бы сказать и о СМИ. Жизнь подражает искусству, искусство подражает жизни. В конце концов, становится трудно отличить одно от другого.

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[1] Определённый артикль делает предмет или существо, о котором идёт речь, более конкретным, похоже на местоимение «тот» в русском языке. (Прим перев.)

[2] Слоган основывается на игре слов: клубный коктейль «club cocktail» (англ.) и дубинка «club» (англ.). (Прим. перев.)

‡агрузка...

[3] Listservers – компьютерная программа, организующая списки электронных подписчиков.

[4] Usenet – этот термин появился в 1980 году и обозначает систему on-line, в которой происходят дискуссии групп-участников.

[5] Intifada – арабское слово, обозначающее восстание; имеется в виду начавшаяся в конце 1987 года борьба палестинцев на оккупированных Израилем территориях Западного Берега реки Иордан и в секторе Газа.

 

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