Negative prefixes

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Measurement prefixes

Macro- large, broad scale, macroeconomics [ˌmækrəuiːkə'nɔmɪks]

Micro- tiny, small scale, microscope ['maɪkrəskəup]

Mid- middle, midwinter [ˌmɪd'wɪntə]

Semi- half, partly, semicolon [ˌsemɪ'kəulən]

Ultra- beyond, extreme, ultraliberal ['ʌltrə 'lɪb(ə)r(ə)l]

Negative prefixes

Dis apart, reversal, lacking, displease [dɪs'pliːz]

In negative, indiscreet [ˌɪndɪ'skriːt]

Non- not, nonsense ['nɔns(ə)n(t)s]

Ob- inverse, in the opposite direction, object ['ɔbʤɪkt]

Se-, sed- apart, separate ['sep(ə)rət]

Un- not, unclean [ʌn'kliːn]

Un- opposite, untie [ʌn'taɪ]

Temporal prefixes:those which say something about time or duration

Ante- preceding, antechamber ['æntɪˌʧeɪmbə]

Fore- before, in time or space, forecast ['fɔːkɑːst]

Neo- new, recent, neotype, neophyte ['niːəfaɪt]

Post- after, behind, postpone [ˌpəust'pəun]

Pre-, pro- before, in front of, preconceive [ˌpriːkən'siːv]

Re-, red- anew, again, back, regenerate [rɪ'ʤen(ə)rət]

11

Conversion is the process of coining new word in different part of speech without adding any derivative element, so that the basic form both of the original and derived words are homonymous. Even though it doesnt add an affix, conversion is often considered to be a type of derivation because of the change in category and meaning that it brings about. For this reason it is sometimes called zero derivation. We dont have any doubt its correct. We dont doubt its correct. My account is overdrawn. I cant account for where the money went.

Conversion has been the subject of linguistic discussions since 1891, when the term was first used by Henry Sweet in his new English grammar. Various opinions have been expressed of the nature and character of the process.

Professor Smirnitskiy treats conversion as a morphological way of forming new words, where a word is transferred from paradigm to another and it is the paradigm that is used as a word-forming means. We may define conversion as the formation of a new word through changes in its paradigm.



Irina Vladimirovna Arnold treats conversion as a combined morphological and syntactic way of word building. As a new word appears not in isolation, but in a definite environment of other words and it involves both a change in paradigm and a change in the syntactic function.

Distribution of the word.

There is also a pure syntactic approach known as a functional approach to conversion. The English stock contains a great main of words formed by means of conversion in different periods of its history. There are cases of traditional and occasional conversion.

Traditional conversion refers to the accepted use of words, which are recorded in dictionaries. E.g. to cook.

The individual or occasional use of conversion is also very frequent. It serves to bring out the more vivid meaning in a given context only. E.g When his guests had been washed, mended, brushed and brandied. The cases of individual conversion do not enter the word stock of the English language.

A diachronic survey of the present-day stock of conversion pairs reveals that some of them came to being as a result of the disappearance of inflexions in the course of the historical development of the English language due to which 2 words of different parts of speech coincide in pronunciation.

A diachronic semantic analysis of a conversion pair points out that in the course of time the semantic structure of the base may obtain a new meaning or even several meanings under the influence of the meanings of the converted words. The process is called reconversion.

If conversion leads to a numerical enlargement of the English vocabulary, reconversion only brings about a new meaning correlated with one of the meanings of the converted word. Reconversion only operates with denominal verbs and deverbal nouns.

...

E.g. smoke to smoke. The noun smoke, acquired [ə'kwaɪəd] in 1715 the meaning of the act of smoke coming out into a room instead of passing up the chimney under the influence of the following meaning of the verb to smoke to emit smoke as the result of imperfect draught or improper burning acquired to a word in 1663.

Compounding is the largest and the most important source of new words. To produce new words by compounding what we do is put 2 words together in perfectly transparent way, and then various changes take place which cause the compound to lose its transparency. For example the following words recognizable now only as fully assimilated single words were once compounds: woman from wife + mon (female + person), good-bye from God be with you, holiday from holy day.

All compounds have two parts and their meaning is a function of the interaction of its parts that may gradually change them from transparent to opaque . There are also phrasal compounds made up of more than 2 words. Is good-for-nothing or man of the world a phrase or a compound? There is no easy answer.

Where the meaning is not obviously computable, some dictionaries list them as lexical compounds. E.g. oxford English dictionary doesnt list jack-of-all-trades but the much smaller Websters collegiate [kə'liːʤɪət] does. maid of honour is listed by both while is good-for-nothing is not listed by any. Nor is the man of the world, though in both these instances there would seem to be good reason to single them out as having special properties.

Structurally compound words are characterized by the specific order and arrangement in which bases follow one another. The order in which the two bases are placed within a compound is rigidly ['rɪʤɪdlɪ] fixed in Modern English and the second component is considered to be the head-member of the word, i.e. its structural and semantic centre. E.g. table cloth, diving suit.

Phonetically, compounds are also marked by a specific structure of their own. The compound word receives a non-stress pattern different from the stress in the motivating words.

Compounds have three stress patterns:

1) high or unity stress on the first component. E.g. honeymoon.

2) double-stress with primarily stress on the first component and secondary stress on the second camp. E.g. washing machine.

3) Level stress: ,arm-chair.

Graphically most compounds have 2 spellings. They are spelled either solidly or with -hyphen. Both types of spelling serve as an indication of inseparability of compound words in contradiction to phrases.

All compounds have two parts and their meaning is a function of the interaction of its parts that may gradually change them from transparent to opaque . There are also phrasal compounds made up of more than 2 words. Is good-for-nothing or man of the world a phrase or a compound? There is no easy answer.

Where the meaning is not obviously computable, some dictionaries list them as lexical compounds. E.g. oxford English dictionary doesnt list jack-of-all-trades but the much smaller Websters collegiate [kə'liːʤɪət] does. maid of honour is listed by both while is good-for-nothing is not listed by any. Nor is the man of the world, though in both these instances there would seem to be good reason to single them out as having special properties.

Structurally compound words are characterized by the specific order and arrangement in which bases follow one another. The order in which the two bases are placed within a compound is rigidly ['rɪʤɪdlɪ] fixed in Modern English and the second component is considered to be the head-member of the word, i.e. its structural and semantic centre. E.g. table cloth, diving suit.

Phonetically, compounds are also marked by a specific structure of their own. The compound word receives a non-stress pattern different from the stress in the motivating words.

Compounds have three stress patterns:

1) high or unity stress on the first component. E.g. honeymoon.

2) double-stress with primarily stress on the first component and secondary stress on the second camp. E.g. washing machine.

3) Level stress: ,arm-chair.

Graphically most compounds have 2 spellings. They are spelled either solidly or with -hyphen. Both types of spelling serve as an indication of inseparability of compound words in contradiction to phrases.

There are several classifications of compounds. The 1st deals with syntactic or lexical compounds. Syntactic compounds are formed by regular rules of grammar, like sentences, and they are not listed in a dictionary. In fact, the majority of compound words we use on a daily basis are the transparent syntactic ones; shoe-maker, candlelight, birdcage, playgoer. On the other hand, we cannot figure out what ice-cream means from the rules of grammar. Therefore ice-cream is a lexical compound and has to be looked up in a dictionary like a totally new word. cry baby must also be treated as a lexical compound as it refers not to babies that cry but to people who act like baby that cries.

The semantic center of a compound is the lexical meaning of the second component modified and restricted by the meaning of the first. Thus, compound w. can be divided into certain lexico-semantic groups.

1) Denoting action described as to its agent: handshake, earthquake

2) Denoting action described as to its time or place: day-flight, street-fight.

3) Denoting individual object designed for some goal: bird-cage, diving-suit.

4) Denoting objects that are parts of the whole: shirt-collar.

5) Denoting active doers: shoe-maker, book-reader.

There are several classifications of compounds. The 1st deals with syntactic or lexical compounds.

And also compounds can be classified according to the nature of the basis and the interconnection with other ways of word forming into compounds proper and derivational compounds.

1. Comp. proper are formed by joining together basis built on the stems or on the word forms of independently functioning words with or without the help of a special linking element: handwork, sportsman. Compounds proper constituted the balk of English compounds in all parts of speech.

2. Derivational comp-s: long-legged, a break-down. They differ from comp. proper in the nature of bases and the second immediate constituency. The second immediate constituency of the long-legged are the suffix ed with meaning having and the base built on a free word group long legs, whose member words lose their grammatical independence and reduced to a single component of the word a derivational base. The derivational adjective suffix ed converts this newly formed base into a word. It imparts its part of speech meaning and its lexical meaning thus making an adjective that may be semantically interpreted as having what is denoted by the motivating word group.

Derivational c-s fall into 2 groups according to the type of variable phrases that serve as their bases and the derivational means used.

a) Derivational compound adj. formed with the help of highly-productive adjectival suffix ed applied to bases built on attributive phrases of the following types

adj. + noun (long-legged), num + noun (three-concerned), noun + noun (doll-faced)

b) Der. Comp. nouns formed mainly by conversion applied to bases: verb-adverb phrase (breakdown), verbal nominal (a turkey one who keeps keys in prison) and attributive phrases (a sweet-tooth - a person who likes sweets


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