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Visible and invisible trade
International trade: Export and import.
There are clear benefits to being open to international trade: trade allows people to produce what they produce best and to consume the great variety of goods and services produced around the world. The key macroeconomics variables that describe an interaction in world markets are exports, imports, the trade balance, and exchange rates.
The main difference between domestic and international trade is the use of foreign currencies to pay for the goods and services crossing international borders.
When nations export (sell goods and services to other countries) more than they import (buy goods and services from other countries), they are said to have a favorable balance of trade. When they import more than they export, a unfavorable balance of trade exists. Nations try to maintain a favorable balance of trade, which assures them of the means to buy necessary imports. Some nations, such as Great Britain in the nineteenth century, based their entire economy on the concept of importing raw materials, processing them into manufactured goods, and then exporting the finished goods.
International trade: investments.
Whenever a country imports or exports goods and services, there is a resulting flow of funds: money returns to the exporting nation, and money flows out of the importing nation. Trade and investment is a two-way street, and with a minimum of trade barriers, international trade and investment usually makes everyone better off.
Investments can have a crucial impact on a nation’s balance of payments. When a investment is made, capital enters a country, enabling it to import manufactured materials to build a new manufacturing plant and to pay workers to build it. Once the plant is operative, it provides both jobs and taxes for the host country and, in time, produces new manufactured goods for export. in this way, investment acts as a catalyst in economic growth for the developing countries throughout the world.
In subsequent years, an investment should yield a profit. Dividends, sums of money paid to shareholders of a corporation out of earnings, can them be remitted to the investing country. From the perspective of the balance of payments, in the year the investment is made, the host country credits income to its balance of payments, and the investing country records a debit. This is reserved in the following years. The dividends then represent an expense for the host and income for the investing country.
Visible and invisible trade.
In addition to visible trade, which involves the import and export of goods and merchandise, there is also invisible trade, which involves the exchange of services between antions. Brazilian coffee is usually transported by ocean vessels because these ships are the cheapest method od transportation. Nations such as Greece and Norway have large maritime fleets, which can provide this transportation service.
The prudent exporter purchases insurance for his cargoes’ voyage. While at sea, a cargo is vulnerable to many dangers, the most obvious being that the ship may sink. In this event, the exporter who has purchased insurance is reimbursed. Otherwise, he may suffer a complete loss. Insurance is another service in which some nations specialize. Great Britain, because of the development of Lloyd’s of London, is a leading exporter of this service, earnings fees for insuring other nations’ foreign trade.
Some nations posses little in the way of exportable commodities, but they have a mild and sunny climate. Tourists spend money for hotel accommodation, makes, taxis, and so on, Tourism, therefore, is another form of invisible trade.
In the past twenty years, million of workers from the countries of southern Europe have gone to work in Germany, Switzerland, France, the Benelux nations, and Scandinavia. The commissions and salaries that are paid to these people represent another form of invisible trade. The workers send money home to support their families. These are called immigrant remittance. they are extremely important kind of invisible trade for some countries, both as imports and exports.
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