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GoAl-seTTIng, AssessmenT And ACCounTAbIlITy
aligning instruction with external standards, setting school goals for student performance, measuring progress
against those goals and making adjustments in the school program to improve performance were identified as other
important aspects of school leadership.
While most countries establish a core curriculum or curriculum framework at national or state level, it is usually
up to school leaders to implement curricula and instruction effectively. Pisa shows that, on average across oecd
countries, more than half of 15-year-olds are in schools where school-level stakeholders have the responsibility to
decide which courses are offered, and more than 40% of students are in schools that determine course content.
school leaders generally have a degree of discretion in how they design curriculum content and sequencing,
organize teaching and instructional resources, and monitor quality. as noted before, Pisa data suggest that in
countries where school leaders reported higher degrees of responsibility, performance tended to be better, even if
that relationship can be affected by many other factors.
school leaders also played a key role in integrating external and internal accountability systems by supporting
their teaching staff in aligning instruction with agreed learning goals and performance standards. for example, a
group of schools reviewed in england used data as a vehicle to engage the leadership team and teachers in school
improvement, and used student-outcome information to develop strategies for learning for individual students
and classrooms. information was reviewed every six weeks. data was analyzed at the individual and classroom
levels, providing an overview of where problems lay. intervention teams then stepped in to look into potential
underperformance and respond to challenges.
Most countries also have a long tradition of school inspections where leaders are held accountable for their use
of public funding and for the structures and processes they establish. Most oecd countries report that they have
or are developing some form of national goals, objectives, or standards of student performance. to assess these,
accountability frameworks tend to rely on both school and student information.
to evaluate school performance, two-thirds of oecd countries have regulations that require lower secondary schools
to be inspected regularly; a slightly smaller number of countries have regulatory requirements for schools to conduct
periodic school self-evaluations. in around three-quarters of oecd countries, these school inspections and school
self-evaluations also have a high level of influence on the evaluation of school administration and individual teachers.
in more than half of all oecd countries, school inspections are also used to make decisions about whether or
not to close schools.
in two-thirds of oecd countries, periodic standardized assessments of students in compulsory education are
conducted to obtain information on student performance. in slightly fewer than half of all oecd countries, national
examinations have a real impact on lower secondary school students, such as allowing them to proceed to a higher
level of education. only a few countries, including Belgium (flemish community), chile and the czech republic
reported that school inspections influenced decisions about providing financial rewards or sanctions.
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