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GoAl-seTTIng, AssessmenT And ACCounTAbIlITy

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aligning instruction with external standards, setting school goals for student performance, measuring progress

against those goals and making adjustments in the school program to improve performance were identified as other

important aspects of school leadership.

While most countries establish a core curriculum or curriculum framework at national or state level, it is usually

up to school leaders to implement curricula and instruction effectively. Pisa shows that, on average across oecd

countries, more than half of 15-year-olds are in schools where school-level stakeholders have the responsibility to

decide which courses are offered, and more than 40% of students are in schools that determine course content.

school leaders generally have a degree of discretion in how they design curriculum content and sequencing,

organize teaching and instructional resources, and monitor quality. as noted before, Pisa data suggest that in

countries where school leaders reported higher degrees of responsibility, performance tended to be better, even if

that relationship can be affected by many other factors.

school leaders also played a key role in integrating external and internal accountability systems by supporting

their teaching staff in aligning instruction with agreed learning goals and performance standards. for example, a

group of schools reviewed in england used data as a vehicle to engage the leadership team and teachers in school

improvement, and used student-outcome information to develop strategies for learning for individual students

and classrooms. information was reviewed every six weeks. data was analyzed at the individual and classroom

levels, providing an overview of where problems lay. intervention teams then stepped in to look into potential

underperformance and respond to challenges.

Most countries also have a long tradition of school inspections where leaders are held accountable for their use

of public funding and for the structures and processes they establish. Most oecd countries report that they have

or are developing some form of national goals, objectives, or standards of student performance. to assess these,

accountability frameworks tend to rely on both school and student information.



to evaluate school performance, two-thirds of oecd countries have regulations that require lower secondary schools

to be inspected regularly; a slightly smaller number of countries have regulatory requirements for schools to conduct

periodic school self-evaluations. in around three-quarters of oecd countries, these school inspections and school

self-evaluations also have a high level of influence on the evaluation of school administration and individual teachers.

in more than half of all oecd countries, school inspections are also used to make decisions about whether or

not to close schools.

in two-thirds of oecd countries, periodic standardized assessments of students in compulsory education are

conducted to obtain information on student performance. in slightly fewer than half of all oecd countries, national

examinations have a real impact on lower secondary school students, such as allowing them to proceed to a higher

level of education. only a few countries, including Belgium (flemish community), chile and the czech republic

reported that school inspections influenced decisions about providing financial rewards or sanctions.


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