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Money: history, functions, forms. (Overview, Unit 4)

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1. The value of college education.
2. Money: history, functions, forms.
3. Pricing policies.
4. A Nation’s Economy. Economic indicators.
5. Markets & Monopolies.
6. International Trade: Export and Import. Investments.
7. Visible and Invisible Trade.
8. Invisible Trade: insurance: functions, classification. Lloyds Underwriters.
9. International Trade: Breaking into the new market.
10. A Nation’s Balance of Payments
11. Types of securities
12. Trade restrictions: tariffs, subsidies, quotas and cartels. How trade restrictions affect international trade.
13. International Trade Organisations & Agreements.
14. Types of businesses.
15. Private Company: The structure of the authorised capital. Risk of a take-over. (Harper & Grant Ltd. overcomes the risk of a take-over and ensures the favourable redistribution of the share capital).
16. A private company: Raising and granting loans. (Harper & Grant Ltd. overcomes the risk of a take-over and ensures the favourable redistribution of the share capital.
17. Auditing the accounts of a limited company
18. Mergers, takeovers & acquisitions.
19. Advantages and disadvantages of small businesses.
20. Advantages and disadvantages of corporations.

The value of college education. (Threshold, Unit 2)

To begin with, I will discuss what the value of a college education means to me. A higher education will give me many physical benefits such as economic stability, a better quality of life for my family, more career choices, better job security, set a good example for my children; at the same time, a college education will also give me many intangible benefits such as boosting my self-confidence, helping me to learn specialized knowledge, thinking critically, bringing me in contact with different people, learning better communication skill and being part of a team. It is something that will serve me well throughout my career and life.


So what is the value of college education?After I sat down and took some time to carefully consider what a college education meant to me, I came to the conclusion that a college education offers many short-term and long-term benefits to me.

One of the definite benefits that a college education can give to me is better economic stability. I believe in this popular saying, "Money can not buy everything, but without it, one can not buy anything". So forgive me being so...

Money: history, functions, forms. (Overview, Unit 4)

Most people use money every day. It is so common that many people rarely think about why money is important and what gives it value. In general, money is any item that is widely accepted as payment for products. It is something people see and use almost every day. Though money is commonplace, its forms and functions are complex. The familiar paper bills and metal coins are only two of the forms money can take. In the past, many things served as money – beads, shells, dog’s teeth, cattle, stones, tobacco, fishhooks and even slaves. Precious metals, especially gold and silver, have been a favourite form of money.

In most modern economies money serves several functions. As a means of exchange money is used to trade for goods and services. Less complex societies often do not use money at all. They simply barter, or trade, one product for another. Two farmers may trade a bushel of wheat for a jar of milk, for example. The more complex a country’s economy is, the harder it is to use a system of trading one good for another. Money is the answer to that problem.

As a store of value people use money to save their wealth for the future. Storing goods is not so easy as storing money. Many goods, such as food, spoil quickly. Others, such as cars, take up a lot of space. But money can be kept in a bank or a safe or a pocketbook until it is needed.

As a standard of value money is used to compare the worth of one product with that of another.

Sometimes, time deposits also are considered a form of money. Several other things are used like money. Economists call things used for some, but not all, of the functions of money near money. Credit cards, for example, allow a purchaser to borrow money from the seller of the purchased goods. Insurance policies, stocks, and bonds are stores of value and can be exchanged for money. They are other examples of near money.

Money is very important in our society. You have your own beliefs about the value of goods, services, jobs, and people. Often the value you place on an item will differ from its monetary value. You may feel that some things are priceless and others are not worth as much as they cost. Your own values dictate what you are willing to do for pay.

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