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Engineering functions

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Research.Using mathematical and scientific concepts, experimental techniques, and inductive reasoning, the research engineer seeks new principles and processes.Research jobs often involve starting with an idea or a need. Theories are formulated, tested and prototyped. Jobs in research can be found at universities, national laboratories as well as private institutions and corporations.

Development. Development engineers apply the results of research to useful purposes. Creative application of new knowledge may result in a working model of a new electrical circuit, a chemical process, or an industrial machine.

Design. In designing a structure or a product, the engineer selects methods, specifies materials, and determines shapes to satisfy technical requirements and to meet performance specifications.

In design and development, the results of research are applied to practical problems. The term ‘development’ refers to the early stages of a project. The term ‘design’ refers more to the later stages of a project when the basic methodology is established. In some companies, research and development are combined.

Construction.The construction engineer is responsible for preparing the site, determining procedures that will economically and safely yield the desired quality, directing the placement of materials, and organizing the personnel and equipment.

Production. Plant layout and equipment selection are the responsibility of the production engineer, who chooses processes and tools, integrates the flow of materials and components, and provides for testing and inspection. Although usually not directly in charge of production personnel, engineers are responsible for solving problems associated with the manufacturing process.

Operation. The operating engineer controls machines, plants, and organizations providing power, transportation, and communication; determines procedures; and supervises personnel to obtain reliable and economic operation of complex equipment.

Testing and evaluation can take place in the laboratory or in the field, often working with equipment, software, systems and the end users. Those who are involved in testing are not the designers.

Management. In some countries and industries, engineers analyze customers’ requirements, recommend units to satisfy needs economically, and resolve related problems. Management jobs often require elements of leadership, planning, coordination, supervision; working with staff, budgets and administration.



Maintenance and Service. Engineering and technical jobs concerned with operations - maintaining and making modifications to hardware and systems.

Problem solving is common to all engineering work. The problem may involve quantitative or qualitative factors; it may be physical or economic; it may require abstract mathematics or common sense. Of great importance is the process of creative synthesis or design, putting ideas together to create a new and optimum solution.

 

3. Запомните необходимый минимум профессиональной лексики:

engineering инженерное дело, инженерное искусство
device устройство, прибор
invention изобретение
branch отрасль
equipment оборудование
research исследование
development разработка, развитие
design проект, проектирование
software программное обеспечение
operation эксплуатация
evaluation оценка
maintenance техническое обслуживание
hardware аппаратное обеспечение

Задание II

1. Определите по формальным признакам, какой частью речи являются следующие слова, и переведите их:

Scientific, construction, themselves, initially, experimental, useful, industrial, responsibility, modification, quantitative

2. Заполните следующую таблицу:

Verb Noun
supervise  
  solution
require  
apply  
  maintenance
  selection
organize  
develop  
  building
  specification

Задание III

1. Подберите эквиваленты к глаголам, обозначенным цифрами:

1. conceive a) применять
2. carry out b) b) определять
3. establish c) замышлять, формулировать
4. apply d) обеспечивать
5. seek e) получать
6. involve f) искать
7. determine g) создавать
8. require h) включать, предусматривать
9. provide i) выполнять
10. obtain j) требовать

2. Подберите эквиваленты к словосочетаниям, обозначенным цифрами:

1. encompass insights a) давать качество
2. develop tools b) охватывать идеи
3. satisfy requirements c) решать задачи
4. yield quality d) контролировать рабочие кадры
5. solve problems e) создавать решение
6. supervise personnel f) разрабатывать инструменты
7. create a solution g) удовлетворять требованиям

3. Составьте синонимичные пары:

1. devise a) satisfy
2. control b) select
3. choose c) create
4. apply d) responsible for
5. in charge of e) supervise
6. production f) field
7. meet g) manufacturing
8. branch h) exploit

4. Заполните пропуски, используя предложенные слова:

engineers, production, needs, fields, factors, civil

1. The discipline of engineering includes a range of more specialized … .

2. … engineering involves design and construction of private and public works.

3. The … engineer is responsible for choosing processes, materials and components.

4. In some countries and industries, … analyze customers’ requirements and try to meet their … .

5. The engineering problem may involve quantitative or qualitative… .

 

Задание IV


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