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IX. Найдите и переведите предложения, где –ing форма переводится существительным:-
1. Swimming is very useful for our health.
2. Understanding the symptoms you can diagnose diseases.
3. He is preparing a paper on infectious diseases.
4. Don’t be afraid of meeting him.
5. Vitamins are very effective in improving our health.
6. Feeling bad he could not go with us.
7. The questions were connected with the publishing of his new book.
8. Translating the text the students came across some difficulties.
9. The approaching car will take the patient to the hospital.
10. Take this medicine before sleeping.
11. Biochemistry studies the chemistry of living tissue.
12. His being at the conference was quite unexpected.
X.Задайте все возможные вопросы к предложению:
European scientists performed many experiments to learn more about human anatomy.
XI. Задайте вопросы к подчеркнутым словам:
1. The scientists determined causes of numerous diseases.
2. Leonardo da Vinci performed many dissections.
3. He recorded his findings in drawings.
4. He made more than 750 drawings.
5. Andreas Vesalius was a physician and a professor of medicine.
6. Ambroise Pare improved surgical techniques.
7. William Harvey performed many experiments in the early 1600’s.
8. Edward Jenner discovered a safe method of immunization to smallpox.
9. Immunology is the prevention of disease by building up resisrance to it.
10. Ether gas can be used to put patients to sleep during surgery.
11. Microbes are living organisms.
12. Bacteria cause particular diseases.
XII.Прочтите и переведите текст:
MEDICINE: HISTORY (PartII)
The chief medical advances in Europe during the Middle Ages were the founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools. A new scientific spirit developed during the Renaissance, the great cultural movement that swept across Western Europe from 1300 to the 1600’s. During the late 1400’s and early 1500’s the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci performed many dissections to learn more about human anatomy. He recorded his findings in more than 750 drawings.
Andreas Vesalius a physician and professor of medicine at the University of Padua in Italy also performed numerous dissections. He used his findings to write the first scientific textbook on human anatomy, a work called “ On the Structure of the Human Body” (1543).
A French army doctor named Ambroise Pare improved surgical techniques to such an extent that he is considered the father of modern surgery.
The English physician William Harvey performed many experiments in the early 1600’s to learn how blood circulates through the body. He performed dissections on both human beings and animals and made careful studies of the human pulsebeat and heartbeat. Harvey discovered that the blood returns to the heart through the veins.
In 1796 an English physician named Edward Jenner discovered a safe method of making people immune to smallpox. The success of the experiment initiated the science of immunology – the prevention of disease by building up resistance to it.
For thousands of years physicians tried to dull pain during surgery by administering alcoholic drinks, opium, and various other drugs but no drug proved to be really effective in reducing the pain and shock of operations. Then in the 1840’s two Americans – Crawford Long and William T.G. Morton - discovered that ether gas could safely be used to put patients to sleep during surgery. Long, a physician, and Morton, a dentist, made the discovery independently.
Scientists of the 1800’s made dramatic progress in learning the causes of infectious diseases. Pasteur, a brilliant French chemist, proved that microbes are living organisms and that certain kinds of microbes cause disease. Koch, a German physician, invented a method for determining which bacteria cause particular diseases.
I. Translate the following word combinations:
достижения в области медицины, в средние века, эпоха Возрождения, культурное движение, по анатомии человека, многочисленные вскрытия, строение тела, как циркулирует кровь по телу, люди и животные, пульс и сердцебиение, сердце прокачивает кровь по артериям, открыть безопасный способ, профилактика заболеваний, пытаться притупить боль, уменьшение боли, причины инфекционных заболеваний, живые организмы, некоторые виды микробов, вызывать определенные болезни
II .Match both parts of the sentences to make them complete. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1. The chief medical advances in Europe a. to write the first scientific
during the Middle Ages were … human anatomy, a work
called “On the Structure of
2. During the late 1400’s and early 1500’s the Human Body”.
the Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci b. many experiments to learn
performed … how blood circulates through
c. a method for determining
3. Andreas Vesalius used his findings … which bacteria cause
4. A French army doctor named Ambroise d. the founding of many
Pare improved … hospitals and the first
university medical schools.
5. The English physician William Harvey e. many dissections to learn
performed… more about human anatomy.
f. that ether gas could safely
6. In 1796 an English physician named be used to put patients to
Edward Jenner discovered … sleep during surgery.
g . a safe method of making
people immune to
7. In the 1840’s Crawford Long and William smallpox.
T.G.Morton discovered … h. surgical techniques to such
8. Paster, a brilliant French chemist, proved… an extent that he is
considered the father of
9. Koch, a German physician, invented… modern surgery.
i. that microbes are
living organisms and that
certain kinds of microbes
III. Express your agreement or disagreement with the following statements:
1. The founding of many hospitals and the first university medical schools were
the chief advances in Europe in the 20-th century.
2. Renaissance is the great cultural movement which took place in the USA.
3. Leonardo da Vinci was a famous Italian artist.
4. He did much to learn more about microbiology.
5. Andreas Vesalius wrote the first scientific book on human anatomy.
6. Ambroise Pare, a French army doctor, is considered the father of antibiotics.
7. William Harvey learnt how blood circulated through the body.
8. Edward Jenner, an English physician, discovered a safe method of making
people immune to tuberculosis.
9. Pasteur was a brilliant French dentist.
10. Robert Koch, a German physician, invented a method for determining causes
of particular diseases.
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