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Social Mobility

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Mobility in Industrial Nations Studies of intergenerational mobility in industrialized nations have found the following patterns:

1. Substantial similarities exist in the ways that parents' positions in stratification systems are transmitted to their children.

2. As in the United States, mobility opportunities in other nations have been influenced by structural factors, such as labor market changes that lead to the rise or decline of an occupational group within the social hierarchy.

3. Immigration continues to be a significant factor in shaping a society's level of intergenerational mobility

Cross-cultural studies suggest that intergenerational mobility has been increasing in recent decades, at least among men. Dutch sociologists Harry Ganzeboom and Ruud Luijkx, joined by sociologist Donald Treiman of the United States, examined surveys of mobility in 35 industrial and developing nations. They found that almost all the countries studied had witnessed increased intergenerational mobility between the 1950s and 1980s. In particular, they noted a common pattern of movement away from agriculture-based occupations.

Mobility in Developing Nations Mobility patterns in industrialized countries are usually associated with intergenerational and intragenerational mobility. However, in developing nations, macro-level social and economic changes often over-shadow micro-level movement from one occupation to another. For example, there is typically a substantial wage differential between rural and urban areas, which leads to high levels of migration to the cities. Yet the urban industrial sectors of developing countries generally cannot provide sufficient employment for all those seeking work.

In large developing nations, the most socially significant mobility is the movement out of poverty. This type of mobility is difficult to measure and confirm, however, because economic trends can differ from one area of a country to another. For instance, China's rapid income growth has been accompanied by a growing disparity in income between urban and rural areas, and among different regions. Similarly, in India during the 1990s, poverty declined in urban areas but may have remained static at best in rural areas. Around the world, social mobility is also dramatically influenced by catastrophes such as crop failure and warfare.



References:

1. Sabel Ch. World of Possibilities Flexibility and Mass Production In Western Industrialization

2. Guillen, Mauro F., Randall Collins, Paula England, and Marshall Meyer, eds. 2002. The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. New York: Sage.

3. Abolafia, Mitchell. 1996. Making Markets: Opportunism and Restraint on Wall Street. Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press.

4. DiMaggio, Paul, ed. 2001. The Twenty-First-Century Firm: Changing Economic Organization in International Perspective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

5. Duina, Francesco. 2006. The Social Construction of Free Trade: The European Union, NAFTA, and Mercosur. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

6. Fligstein, Neil. 2001. The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of Twenty-First-Century Capitalist Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

7. Guillen, Mauro F. 2001. The Limits of Convergence: Globalization & Organizational Change in Argentina, South Korea, and Spain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

8. White, Harrison C. 2001. Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

 

area of a country to another. For instance, China's rapid income growth has been accompanied by a growing disparity in income between urban and rural areas, and among different regions. Similarly, in India during the 1990s, poverty declined in urban areas but may have remained static at best in rural areas. Around the world, social mobility is also dramatically influenced by catastrophes such as crop failure and warfare.

References:

1. Sabel Ch. World of Possibilities Flexibility and Mass Production In Western Industrialization

2. Guillen, Mauro F., Randall Collins, Paula England, and Marshall Meyer, eds. 2002. The New Economic Sociology: Developments in an Emerging Field. New York: Sage.

‡агрузка...

3. Abolafia, Mitchell. 1996. Making Markets: Opportunism and Restraint on Wall Street. Cambridge: HarvardUniversity Press.

4. DiMaggio, Paul, ed. 2001. The Twenty-First-Century Firm: Changing Economic Organization in International Perspective. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

5. Duina, Francesco. 2006. The Social Construction of Free Trade: The European Union, NAFTA, and Mercosur. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

6. Fligstein, Neil. 2001. The Architecture of Markets: An Economic Sociology of Twenty-First-Century Capitalist Societies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

7. Guillen, Mauro F. 2001. The Limits of Convergence: Globalization & Organizational Change in Argentina, South Korea, and Spain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

8. White, Harrison C. 2001. Markets from Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

 


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