The British Parliament
Parliament in Britain is an ancient institution dating the beginning of the 13th century though it was established in 1265 by Simon de Montfort. Now the home of the British Parliament is the Palace of Westminster. It’s called a palace because until the reign of Henry the 8th it was one of the Homes of the kings of England. The name Westminster means Minister or Monastery (монастырь) to the West of London. There used to be a small church and monastery in the 11th century on the side of which Westminster Abbey now stands. In the 11th century king Edward the Confessor built a palace. Later his successor extended it and made it the Home. Government and the Court (двор) moved into the neighborhood and central seat of power was established.
For nearly 500 years Westminster served as a royal residence, seat of power and monastery.
Parliament of legislature and the Supreme (высший) Assort (класс) – it consists of 3 elements: The Monarch, The House of Lords and The House of Commons.
They meet together only on occasions of ceremonial significance (for example, the opening of Parliament).
Parliament has the following functions:
- Passing or abolishing Laws
- Voting on taxation in order to provide money for carrying government , debating government policy and administration and any other major issues
The House of Commons consists of 650 elected members – Members of Parliament (MPs), age of whom represents an area or constitutions of the UK and is elected.
The government which is the part of Parliament is formed by the political party which has the majority in the House of Commons. It’s leader the Prime-Minister (PM).
The second largest party becomes the official position with its leader and ‘Shadow Cabinet”.
The House of Commons is presided (контролировать) over by the Speaker. MPs are paid for their work and have to attend to seats which usually begin at 10 a.m.
New Laws may be proposed in Parliament either by the Government or by Private Impeach (???) or by members of the House of Lords. The proposed Law is known as a bill (законопроект).
When it has been finally past, bill becomes an Act of Parliament.
The House of Lords has more then 1,200 members now who have the right to sit and vote in the House of Lords. Most of them are hereditary besides the queen grants Peerages to certain outstanding individuals. Amount members of Lords are Archbishop of Canterbury and York and 24 Anglican Senior Bishops, hereditary Peers, 11 Judges and 1085 live Peers .And unlike impeers (члены парламента) they dо not receive a salary (за даром).
The powers of the Lords are limited by Law and Convention. The debating persuade of two Houses are very similar (3 readings) and bills approved at all stages and then to the royal Assent (санкция) and become the Acts of Parliament.
The Lords have the power to right public laws but rarely do it. It’s most important role is to review laws proposed by the House of Commons.
The House of Lords is the only non-elected second chair member (2 палата) among all the democrats in the world and some people in Britain would like to abolish it.
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