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Task 12

Find in the text given below and write out all the metaphors and idioms :


It is well known that advertisement is the engine of trade. It helps to promote products and services. Commercials always make the choice easier for the potential buyers. In our days consumers are so educated that they will never buy a pig in a poke. It’s no secret that some dishonest producers try to make something off something and pull the wool over the public’s eyes. It goes without saying that such people will always be left with the ruins and their honest competitors will leave them behind.

Advertisement shouldn’t put off the result indefinitely. It should be noticeable, interesting and effective. In fact, it has to be fruitful for the producers, useful for the public and profitable for the advertising agencies in the end. As they say, one hand washes the other.


Вопросы для итогового контроля студентов



13. Explain the reasons of immense number of foreign origin words in English.

14. What is the earliest group of English borrowings? Date it.

15. What Celtic borrowings are there in English? Date them.

16. Which words were introduced into English vocabulary during the period of Christianization?

17. What are the characteristic features of Scandinavian borrowings?

18. What are the characteristic features of words borrowed into English during the Renaissance?

19. What suffixes and prefixes can help you to recognize words of Latin and French origin?

20. Why are words borrowed and which conditions stimulate the borrowing process?

21. What stages of assimilation do borrowings go through?

22. In what spheres of communication do international words frequently occur?

23. What do we understand by etymological doublets?

24. What are the characteristic features of translation loans?


9. What is understood by “semantics”? Explain the term “polysemy”. Illustrate your answer with the examples.

10. What are the two levels of analysis in investigating the semantic structure of a word?

11. What types of semantic components can be distinguished within the meaning of a word?

12. What is one of the most promising methods for investigating the semantic structure of a word? What is understood by collocability (combinability)?

13. What causes the development of new meanings? Give examples.

What is the basis of development or change of meaning? Explain what we mean by the term transference.

14. What types of transference can you name? Give examples.

15. What do the widening and narrowing of the meaning mean?

16. Explain what is meant by “degradation” and “elevation” of meaning.



12. What are the main ways of enriching the English vocabulary?

13. What are the principle productive ways of word- building in English?

14. What do we mean by derivation?

15. What do we mean by derivation?

16. What is the difference between frequency and productivity of affixes?

Give examples of your own to show that affixes have meanings.

17. What features of Modern English have produced the high productivity of conversion? What categories of parts of speech are especially affected by conversion?

18. What is understood by composition? What do we call words made by this type of word- building?

19. Into what groups and subgroups can compounds be subdivided structurally? Give examples.

20. Which types of composition are productive in Modern English? How can this be demonstrated?

21. What are the criteria for distinguishing between a compound and a word-combination?

22. What are the two processes of making shortenings? Explain the productivity of this way of word-building and stylistic characteristics of shortened words. Give examples.

23. What minor processes of word-building do you know? Describe them and illustrate your answer with examples.




Билет 1

10. The Object of Lexicology. General Lexicology and Special Lexicology.

11. Classification of Suffixes.

12. What Celtic borrowings are in English? Date them and give examples.




Билет 2

1. Descriptive Lexicology.

2. Semantic structure of English words.

3. Which words were introduced into English Vocabulary during the period of Christianization?


Билет 3

1. Theory of the Word. Definitions.

2. Prefixes. Valency.

3. What are the characteristic features of Scandinavian borrowings? Give examples.


Билет 4

1. Semasiology. Semasiology or Semantics?

2. Morphological Structure of English Words.

3. What are the characteristic features of words borrowed into English during the Renaissance?


Билет 5

1. The Lexical Meaning of the word and its Semantic Structure.

2. Morphemes. Free and Bound Morphemes.

3. What Suffixes and Prefixes can help you to recognize the words of Latin and French origin?


Билет 6

1. Denotative Meaning of a word.

2. The Valency of Affixes and Stems.

3. Why are words borrowed and which conditions stimulate the borrowing process?


Билет 7

1. Connotations. The Emotional Content.

2. Stages of Assimilation of the borrowed words.

3. Productive and Non-productive affixes.


Билет 8

1. Significative Meaning. Grammatical Meaning.

2. Compound words. The Criteria of Compounds. Classification of Compounds.

3. Give the examples of Etymological Doublets.


Билет 9

1. Semantic Components.

2. Aims and principles of Morphemic and Word-formation Analysis. Immediate constituents. Composition.

3. In what spheres of communication do International words frequently occur?


Билет 10

1. The Lexical Meaning and the Notion. Types of Semantic Components distinguished within the Meaning.

2. Derivational and Functional Affixes.

3. What are the characteristic features of Translation Loans?



Билет 11

1. Connection of Lexicology with Phonetics, Stylistics and Grammar.

2. Semantic change of a word. Semantic triangle.

3. Shortening (contraction). Give the definition and examples.


Билет 12

1. Etymology of English words. Etymological structure of the English Vocabulary.

2. Minor types of Modern word-building. Reduplication. Back-formation. Conversion.

3. Classify the following synonyms according to degree: gratify, please, exalt, content, satisfy, delight.


Билет 13

1. Theoretical and practical value of Lexicology.

2. Synonyms. Definition. Sources of Synonymy.

3. Find the dominant Synonyms in the groups: to astonish-to amaze-to surprise-to astound; to glimmer-to glisten-to blaze-to shine-to sparkle-to flash.


Билет 14

1. What is Phraseology?

2. Antonyms.

3. What is the earliest group of English borrowings? Date it .


Билет 15

1. Definitions of phraseology by Russian, British and the USA scholars.

2. Homonyms. Phonetic coincidence or semantic differentiation?

3. Explain the reasons of immense number of foreign origin words in English.


Билет 16

1. Lexicography. Definition. Types of Dictionaries.

2. Widening and Narrowing of the meaning.

3. Give the examples of Latin Affixes.



Билет 17

1. Euphemisms.

2. “Degradation” and “Elevation “ of Meaning.

3. Give the examples of Latin Prefixes.



Билет 18

1.Transference Based on Resemblance (Similarity)

2. Semi-Affixes.

3. Explain when and under what circumstances did England become a bi-lingual country?



Билет 19

1. Transference Based on Contiguity.

2. Which types of Composition are Productive in Modern English? How can this be demonstrated

3. Date the following borrowings: “bishop”, “monk”, “nun”, “candle”. From what language did the come?

Билет 20

1. Types of transference.

2. International words.

3. Give the examples of French Affixes.




1. Define the country where the following words were borrowed from: wine, street, wall, pepper :

a) Roman Empire b) Greece c) Minor Asia d) Persia


2. Define the period of the following borrowings : Resurrection, nun, bishop, candle:

a) 7th century A.D. b) 7th century B.C. c) 1st century B.C. d) 8-11th centuries A.D.


3) The words starting with sk-are borrowed from:

a) Scandinavian languages b) German c) Celtic d) Anglo-Saxon languages


4) The words like : moderate, intelligent, permanent are borrowed from French starting from:

a) Renaissance Period b) 1066 c) 5th century d) Christianization


5) The suffixes : –mentand –ance are of :

a) French origin b) Latin origin c) Greek origin d) Indo-European origin


6)Which of the following elements are borrowed:

a) Celtic(5th-6th c.A.D.) b) Germanic elements c) Indo-European d) English proper


7) What kind of elementary concepts was particularly Indo-European :

a) family relations b) animals c) plants d) parts of the human body


8) The branch of linguistics which specialises in the study of meaning is called :

a) semantics b) etymology c) phraseology d) morphology


9) Which component can’t be called a semantic one:

a) structural b) denotative c) connotative


10) Which reason does not cause development of a new meaning of a word :

a) scientific b) linguistic c) historical


11) The process of development of a new meaning is called:

a) transference b) resemblance c) semantic change d) semantic shift


12) Which process does not belong to transference:

a)based on homonymia b)based on similarity c) based on contiguity

d) based on broadening of meaning


13) How is the following process called : boy – any young person of the male sex > servant of the male sex :

a) narrowing of meaning b) broadening of meaning c) degradation of meaning d) elevation of meaning


14) What way of word-building is considered to be a least productive one:

a) shortening b) conversion c) derivation d) composition



15) Affixes, which take part in deriving new words in this (nowadays) particular period of time are called :

a) productive b) native c) borrowed d) noun-forming



16) One of the following suffixes of nouns is the native one:

a) -ness b) -tion c) -age d) -ess



17) One of the following suffixes of nouns is the non-productive one:

a) –th b) –ing c) –ism d) –er



18) The two categories of speech especially effected by conversion are:

a) nouns and verbs b) nouns and adverbs c) adjectives and nouns

d) verb and adjectives



19) One of the following is not the type of compounds :

a) specific b) neutral c) morphological d) syntactic



20) One of the following does not belong to the minor types of modern word-building:

a) contraction b) onomatopoeia c) reduplication d) reversion



21) The traditional and oldest principle for classifying phraseological units is called:

a) thematic b) semantic c) structural d) structural-semantic



22) Which class of phraseological units is odd in the following group of classes, suggested by Professor A.V.Koonin:

a) verbal b) nominative c) nominative-communicative

d) communicative



23) According to V.V.Vinogradov, the word-groups with a completely changed meaning which does not correspond to the meanings of its constituent parts are called:

a) phraseological unities b) phraseological combinations c) phraseological fusions

d) phraseological entities



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