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Simulator training is a compulsory part in the teaching process while preparing aviation specialists. The main goals and tasks of the simulator training are - to develop students’ habits and skills to work and to control air traffic in real situation. Simulator centre is a special teaching training complex. There are highly qualified and experienced instructors and operators there. The instructors help the future controllers in controlling air traffic. Because the theoretical programme that the students get in the class is not enough, it is necessary to have a regular training practice. The instructors create not only the standard situations in the air and on board the aircraft, but non-standard ones. The students develop their professional habits and skills while controlling air traffic under emergency conditions. It is easier to do it at the simulator than in reality. With the help of special devices you can create any different conditions rain, icing, fog, emergency situations such as: engine failure, fire, aircraft pressurization, and so on. A controller has to be ready to understand the situation quickly and to give the necessary instructions to a pilot what to do. Students ‘talk’ to the pilots of aircraft through the communications system giving them the commands and instructions.

The students use English phraseology while communicating with the aircraft. The number of foreign aircraft operating international service is constantly increasing. English phraseology is an integral part of a controller’s job. The requirements concerning English are constantly increasing from year to year. A great number of academic hours are devoted to the simulator training according to curriculum at the educational establishments. Simulator training practice is necessary and compulsory for all ATC specialists. It helps the students not to be confused in any critical and difficult situations but to find correct and right decisions in this or that situation. A controller is responsible for the safety of flights. It means that we entrust him with our lives.

With air traffic growing at an unprecedented rate throughout the world, and a dramatic shortage of qualified air traffic controllers, quality ATC training is imperative. Simulation has to go beyond a simple computer game consisting of a few conflicting aircraft. Complete simulation needs to include all of the factors, which are present in actual ATC facilities. It is now essential to teach potential controllers how to manage airspace, communicate which other aircraft and agencies, use his flight strips and work within a team.

Simulator training programme meets international ICAO standards and recommended practices.




Terroristic act such as murders, punishment, threat, explosions and other actions of violence which are prepared by special organizations and groups and implemented (realized) by some people against state political, or public leaders have always been existed.

History knows a lot of such acts: murders of Yuliy Tzesar – the ancient dictator; Abraam Lincoln and John Kennedy – the 16 and the 35th Presidents of America; Indira Hundy – the Prime-Minister of India; Pabin – the Prime-Minister of Israel and many others.

All those actions were domestic acts regardless of their motives. But nowadays the terrorism of international character has become very dangerous and has widened its borders.

Terrorism touches the interests of two or more countries, break the international law and order.

The number of similar terroristic acts have happened during the last years of the 20th century.

There were explosions of American Embassies in some countries, a number of houses with lots of people in Moscow and Volgodonsk were destroyed, there was an active subversive activity in Turkey and so on.

It is very important to know and to study the motives of terroristic acts because the knowledge of the motives will give us an opportunity to develop effective neutral measures to neutralize the terroristic acts.

The intimidation of the local population, the weakening of state power, the physical liquidation of political leaders and other actions motived by regions convictions, revenge, economical competition or connected with the behaviour of some mentally sick people can be the basis of terrorism.

The fight against terrorism is a complicated, dangerous and multi aspect task Intelligence and reconnaissance, counterespionage, search and analytical work are the main parts in the fight against terrorism.

In Ukraine the special operative work against terrorism is conducted with the help of subdivisions of Security Servise of Ukraine, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Defence and many others. A lot of work has been done and is being conducted for peace and security of the people and for liquidation of terroristic groups, organizations and their leaders.

Our country is experiencing an economical, social and political crisis and as a result it affect the crime situation and expansion of criminal elements and terroristic subversive activity. The murder of deputy V. Getman, an attempt to kill N. Vitrenko in October 1999 and a number of terroristic acts against famous politicians, businessmen, journalists make us speak about the problem of terrorism in Ukraine very seriously.

In spite of the fact that our competent organizations pay much attention to the problems of security of our country and people the effective measures have not been worked out yet. National system of security isn’t ready to resist against terrorism effectively and preventive measures have not acted in a proper way.

Nowadays the terrorists use a great variety of weapon. They have got the best achievements of modern technology at their disposal. In the past they used to have handmade bombs, but today they prefer bomb-letters, bomb-parcels, contacted bombs and modernized guns. It makes criminals be elusive and unpunished and the fight against terrorism gets more and more complicated.

Terrorists have got a lot of possibilities to use chemical, biological and even nuclear weapon that makes the world community very anxious and worried. It is necessary to unite and coordinate the efforts of all countries to cooperate together in order to cope with terrorists.

As a result of mutual cooperation a number of international agreements have been worked out and adopted.

Geneva Convention (in 1958) adopted a number of paragraphs against terrorism in the open sea – pirating. Gaaga Convention (in 1970) and Convention (in 1971) adopted some agreements against unlawful aircraft hijacking and effective measures for punishment the hijackers.

The special committee which was organized in 1973 by UNO has been working very actively. It deals with working out and adopting the lawful standards, the preparation and conducting of international agreements and conventions, analysing the reasons of terroristic actions, the development of necessary and effective measures in fighting against terrorism.



17. International Civil Aviation Organization (part I)

The constitution of ICAO is the Convention on International Civil Aviation, drawn up by a conference in Chicago in November and December 1944, and to which each ICAO Contracting State is a party. According to the terms of the Constitution the Organization is made up of an Assembly, a Council of limited membership with various subordinate bodies and a Secretariat. The chief officers are the President of the Council and the Secretary General. The Assembly, composed of representatives from all Contracting States, is the sovereign body of ICAO. It meets every three years, reviewing in detail the work of the Organization and setting policy for the coming years, it also sets a triennial budget.

The Council, the governing body, which is elected by the assembly for a three-year term, is composed of 36 States. The Assembly chooses the Council Member States under three headings: States of chief importance in air transport, States which make the largest contribution to the provision of facilities for air navigation, and States whose designation will ensure that all major areas of the world are represented. As the governing body, the Council gives continuing direction of the work of ICAO. It is in the Council that Standards and Recommended Practices are adopted by and incorporated in Annexes to the Convention of International Civil Aviation. The Council is assisted by the Air Navigation Commission (technical matters), the Air Transport Committee (economic matters), the Committee of Joint Support of Air Navigation Services and the Finance Committee. The Secretariat, headed by a Secretary General, is divided into five main divisions: the Air Navigation Bureau, the Air Transport Bureau, the Technical Cooperation Bureau, the Legal Bureau and the Bureau of Administration and Services. In order that the work of the Secretary shall reflect a truly international approach, professional personnel are recruited on a broad geographical basis.

17. Why are professional personnel recruited on a board geographical basis?

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