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About the Bologna Process

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The aim of the Bologna Process is to create a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) based on international cooperation and academic exchange that is attractive to European students and staff as well as to students and staff from other parts of the world.

The envisaged European Higher Education Area will

• facilitate mobility of students, graduates and higher education staff;

• prepare students for their future careers and for life as active citizens in democratic societies, and support their personal development;

• offer broad access to high-quality higher education, based on democratic principles and academic freedom.

The Bologna Process is named after the Bologna Declaration, which was signed in the Italian city of Bologna on 19 June 1999 by ministers in charge of higher education from 29 European countries. Today, the Process unites 46 countries - all party to the European Cultural Convention and committed to the goals of the European Higher Education Area. An important characteristic of the Bologna Process - and key to its success - is that it also involves European Commission, Council of Europe and UNESCO-CEPES, as well as representatives of higher education institutions, students, staff, employers and quality assurance agencies.

What are the reforms all about?

• Easily readable and comparable degrees organized in a three-cycle structure (e.g. bachelor-master-doctorate): Countries are currently setting up national qualifications frameworks that are compatible with the overarching framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area and define learning outcomes for each of the three cycles.

• Quality assurance in accordance with the Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area (ESG).

• Fair recognition of foreign degrees and other higher education qualifications in accordance with the Council of Europe/UNESCO Recognition Convention.

• Work is also undertaken in areas of broader societal relevance, such as the links between higher education, research and innovation; equitable participation and lifelong learning.

The ongoing reforms will have a strong impact on how European higher education relates to higher education in other parts of the world, which is why Ministers have adopted a Strategy for the European Higher Education Area in a Global Setting.


ІІ. Виконання післятекстових вправ.

2. Перекладіть українською мовою:

To have a strong impact, to be named after, to sign, a key to success, employers, easily readable and comparable degrees, in accordance with, equitable participation, lifelong learning, to adopt, to be attractive to, facilitate mobility.

3. Дайте відповіді на запитання:

1. What is the aim of Bologna process?

2. Why is it called Bologna Process and who participates?

3. What is the influence of the ongoing reforms?

 

ІІ. Робота з граматичним матеріалом: Прикметник. Прислівник. Ступені порівняння.

Односкладні та двоскладні прикметники
  Вищий ступінь порівняння Найвищий ступінь порівняння
Tall Taller The tallest
Wide Wider The widest
Big Bigger The biggest
Happy happier The happiest
Багатоскладові прикметники
  Вищий ступінь порівняння Найвищий ступінь порівняння
Careful More / less careful The most / the least careful
dangerous More / less dangerous The most / the least dangerous
Особливі випадки вживання
  Вищий ступінь порівняння Найвищий ступінь порівняння
Bad Worse The worst
Good Better The best
Far Father Further The farthest The furthest
Old Older Elder The oldest The eldest
little less The least
Не забувайте вживати сполучник than у вищому ступені порівняння прикметника: Ann is tallerthan Nick.
Запам’ятайте: As … as – такий … як Not so … as – не такий … як

 

ІII. Виконання граматичних вправ.

1.Розкрийте дужки, вживаючи необхідну ступінь порівняння прикметників.

1. The town is just as (large) as my native one.

2. The road was (long) than we had expected.

3. The girl is very (intelligent).

4. As soon as they understood that the second book was (boring) than the first one, they changed their mind.

5. The shop is (far) than the school.

6. Tim is (intelligent) than Pat.

7. The heat is less (harmful) than the cold.

8. This song is (beautiful) one in the world!

9. They are as (stubborn) as donkeys!

10. The weather today is (bad) than the weather yesterday but not as (bad) as it was four days ago.

11. The story was (exciting) one I have ever heard.

12. They were less (tired) than we.

13. George bought a (new) car than he could ever imagine.

14. The mark is a (good) than I expected.

15. They are very (upset) with the results.

2.Перекладіть англійською:

Давній товариш, старший син, найдовша дорога, брудна підлога, найсильніший спортсмен, більш складний приклад, дорога сукня, найрозумніший студент, більш комфортне крісло, найсвітліша кімната, тепліше пальто, гарніша дівчина, молодший брат, кращий день.

3.Перекладіть англійською:

1. Marry is taller than John.

2. He is more helpful than he used to be.

3. The restaurant is more expensive than the café.

4. Her son is the youngest pupil in the class.

5. It is the worst play I have ever seen.

6. If you eat a lot you will get fatter.

7. He doesn’t work so difficult as I do.

8. It is slowly getting colder and colder.

9. Volvo isn’t the most expensive of all the cars.

10. Nowadays computers are more complicated.

 

V. Робота з текстом за професійним спрямуванням.

1. Прочитайте текст та заповніть пропуски у ньому, використовуючи наступні слова:

Decibels, factors, inability, childhood, newborns, determine, controversy, loud

DEAFNESS

Hearing loss, deafness, hard of hearing, anacusis, hearing impairment (a term considered derogatory by many in the community), is a partial or total ________to hear. For children it may affect the development of language and can cause work related difficulties for adults.

It is caused by many_______, including: genetics, aging, exposure to noise, illness, chemicals and physical trauma.Hearing testing may be used to ________ the severity of the hearing loss. While the results are expressed in __________, hearing loss is usually described as mild, mild-moderate, moderate, moderately severe, severe, or profound. Hearing loss is usually acquired by a person who at some point in life had no hearing impairment.

There are a number of measures that can prevent hearing loss and include avoidance of _______ noise, chemical agents, and physical trauma. Testing for poor hearing is recommended for all________. But, in some cases such as due to disease, illness, or genetics, it is impossible to reverse or prevent. Hearing aids are partially effective for many.

Globally hearing loss affects about 10% of the population to some degree. It caused moderate to severe disability in 124 million people as of 2004 (108 million of whom are in low and middle income countries). Of these 65 million developed the condition during_________.It is one of the most common medical conditions presenting to physicians. It is viewed by some in the deaf community as a condition, not an illness. Treatments such as cochlear implants have caused ________ in the deaf community.

 

VІ. Виконання післятекстових вправ.

1. Складіть анотацію до тексту, користуючись планом.

2. Складіть до тексту словник фахових термінів за схемою: термін (англійською мовою), транскрипція, переклад терміну українською мовою. Обсяг словника – не менше 10 слів.

 

Список літератури:

1. Барановська Т.В. Граматика англійської мови. Збірник вправ / Т.В. Барановська. – К.: ВП Логос-М, 2008. – 384 с.

2. Верба Л.Г. Граматика сучасної англійської мови/ Л.Г. Верба, Г.В. Верба. – К : ТОВ Логос-М, 2007. – 352 с.


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