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II. Translate the following borrowings into English and group them by the categories (flora, fauna, objects)
Canoe, cassava, hammock, iguana, potato, petunia, tobacco, condor, chocolate, tomato, chili, avocado, cashew, cougar, ocelot, puma, quinine, coyote, cocoon, barbecue, guava, savanna, cannibal, poncho, jaguar, papaya, raccoon, opossum, moccasin, hominy, skunk, muskrat, woodchuck, hickory, totem ,caribou, succotash, chipmunk, squash, toboggan, powwow, mackinaw, kayak, igloo, sequoia, tipi, anorak.
III. There are some American words that are peculiar to the USA and are quite different from their equivalents in the rest of the English-speaking world. Translate them and try to remember, make your own sentences with them.
There are also complications with the time, the date and with numbers.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist. He is most noted for his novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), the latter often called "the Great American Novel."
Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born in Florida, Missouri, on November 30, 1835. He was the son of Jane, a native of Kentucky, and John Marshall Clemens, a Virginian by birth. His parents met when his father moved to Missouri and were married several years later, in 1823. He was the sixth of seven children, but only three of his siblings survived childhood. Twain was born two weeks after the closest approach to Earth of Halley's Comet.
When he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a port town on the Mississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Missouri was a slave state and young Twain became familiar with the institution of slavery, a theme he would later explore in his writing. Twain's father was an attorney and judge.
In 1847, when Twain was 11, his father died of pneumonia. The next year, he became a printer's apprentice. In 1851, he began working as a typesetter and contributor of articles and humorous sketches for the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper owned by his brother Orion. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Cincinnati. He joined the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers union, and educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school.
On a voyage to New Orleans down the Mississippi, steamboat pilot Horace E. Bixby inspired Twain to become a pilot himself. As Twain observed in Life on the Mississippi, the pilot surpassed a steamboat's captain in prestige and authority; it was a rewarding occupation with wages set at $250 per month. A steamboat pilot needed to know the ever-changing river to be able to stop at the hundreds of ports and wood-lots. Twain studied 2,000 miles (3,200 km) of the Mississippi for more than two years before he received his steamboat pilot license in 1859. This occupation gave him his pen name, Mark Twain, from "mark twain," the cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms.
At the start of the Civil War, Twain enlisted briefly in a Confederate local unit.
Twain moved to San Francisco, California in 1864, still as a journalist. His first success as a writer came when his humorous tall tale, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County," was published in a New York weekly, The Saturday Press, on November 18, 1865. It brought him national attention. A year later, he travelled to the Sandwich Islands (present-day Hawaii) as a reporter for the Sacramento Union.
In 1867, a local newspaper funded a trip to the Mediterranean. During his tour of Europe and the Middle East, he wrote a popular collection of travel letters, which were later compiled as The Innocents Abroad in 1869. It was on this trip that he met his future brother-in-law, Charles Langdon. Both were passengers aboard the Quaker City on their way to the Holy Land. Langdon showed a picture of his sister Olivia to Twain; Twain claimed to have fallen in love at first sight.
Upon returning to the United States, Twain was offered honorary membership in the secret society Scroll and Key of Yale University in 1868. Its devotion to "fellowship, moral and literary self-improvement, and charity" suited him well.
Throughout 1868, Twain and Olivia Langdon corresponded but she rejected his first marriage proposal. Two months later, they were engaged. In February 1870, Twain and Langdon were married in Elmira, New York. The couple lived in Buffalo, New York from 1869 to 1871. Twain owned a stake in the Buffalo Express newspaper and worked as an editor and writer. While living in Buffalo, their son Langdon died of diphtheria at 19 months. They had three daughters: Susy , Clara and Jean. The couple's marriage lasted 34 years, until Olivia's death in 1904. All of the Clemens family are buried in Elmira's Woodlawn Cemetery.
Twain passed through a period of deep depression that began in 1896 when his daughter Susy died of meningitis. Olivia's death in 1904 and Jean's on December 24, 1909, deepened his gloom.
In 1909, Twain is quoted as saying: "I came in with Halley's Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don't go out with Halley's Comet”. His prediction was accurate—Twain died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Redding, Connecticut, one day after the comet's closest approach to Earth.
Twain's funeral was at the "Old Brick" Presbyterian Church in New York. He is buried in his wife's family plot at Woodlawn Cemetery in Elmira, New York. His grave is marked by a 12-foot (i.e., two fathoms, or "mark twain") monument, placed there by his surviving daughter, Clara.
pen name – псевдонім
siblings – брати і сестри
childhood – дитинство
attorney – повірений, адвокат
judge – суддя
a printer's apprentice – учень художника, підмайстер
typesetter – друкар
wages set – заробітна плата
woodlots – лісові угіддя, ділянки
fathom – морський сажень (дорівнює 6 футам або 182 см)
to surpass – перевершувати, перевищувати, переганяти
"The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" – «Відома скачуча жаба із Клевераса»
to fall in love at first sight – закохатися із першого погляду
devotion – відданість
strake – рубрика в газеті
editor – редактор
gloom – смуток, пригнічений стан
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