UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE

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  1. British, American and Ukrainian Characters. Overcoming Stereotypes.
  2. Computer languages p.121
  3. Countries, capitals, languages and nationalities
  4. English-Ukrainian Glossary
  5. Ex.10. Write the appropriate word or phrase in the following spaces. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
  6. Ex.3. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms. Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.
  7. Ex.3. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms. Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.
  8. Ex.4. Familiarize yourself with the following idioms. Consult your dictionary and translate the sentences into Ukrainian. Think of situations where you could use them.
  9. Ex.5. Study the following phrases. Translate them into Ukrainian.
  10. Ex.7. Study the verbs which are usually used when talking about using computers. Consult your dictionary and translate them into Ukrainian.
  11. Ex.7. Write the appropriate word or phrase in the following spaces. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.
  12. Ex.9. Write the appropriate word or phrase in the following spaces. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian.

Ukrainian belongs to the group of the Slavic languages. Slavs are a group of Eastern European peoples, subdivided into Eastern Slavs (Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians) and Westerns Slavs (Poles, Moravians, Czechs, Slovakians, Bulgarians).

The Ukrainian language is the second most widely spoken language of 12 surviving members of the Slavic group of Indo-European language family.

Ukrainian is represented basically by a set of dialects, some of which differ significantly from others. Generally, however, dialectal divisions in Ukrainian are not so strong as they are, for example, in British English or German. Traditionally scholars have divided Ukrainian dialects into three main groups: northern, southwestern and southeastern.

Standard Ukrainian is a superstructure built on this dialectal foundation. It is the only form of Ukrainian taught in school and is used in literature. The standard language is based mainly on the Poltava-Kyiv dialects of southeastern group.

The status of Ukrainian language on Ukraine territories was defined, except during Ukraines brief period of independence, by foreign powers. As a rule, the role of the Ukrainian language was restricted. In the former USSR, for example, there was no special legislation on language; Russian was the only language of government. Ukraines constitution of 1937 guaranteed the use of Ukrainian in the schools. In fact, Russian continued to be the only language of instruction for the Ukrainian population.

On 28 October1989 the Supreme Soviet of the UkSSR passed the law On languages in the Ukrainian SSR, which gives official status to Ukrainian and provides its introduction in the legislation, ministry, civil organizations and enterprises, the court system, international trades and agreements, the school system for kindergarten to higher educational institutions, scientific publications and mass media.

Ukrainian became the official language in Ukraine in1990.

E x e r c i s e s

I. Answer the questions:

1. To what group does Ukrainian language belong?

2. What are the groups of Slavs?

3. What kinds of dialects are in Ukrainian language?

4. What is standard Ukrainian language?

5. When does the Ukrainian language receive the status of national?



6. What law was adopted on 28 October 1989?

7. When does Ukrainian become the official language?

I. Say what statements are false and what are true; correct the false ones:

1. Ukrainian belongs to the Slavic group of language.

2. The Slavic alphabet was introduces by Cyril and Methodius.

3. Cyril and Methodius introduces Glagolytsya alphabet too.

4. In the 19th century the teachers of the Moscow Slavic Academy were Ukrainians.

5. Standard Ukrainian is built on this dialectal foundation.

6. On 28 October1989 the Supreme Soviet of the UkSSR passed the law On languages in the Ukrainian SSR.

7. Ukrainian became the official language in Ukraine in1980.

III. Match English and Ukrainian words:

hut

palace

hook

fortress

letter

comma

verse

paper

oil

cook

rest

stream

gum

gas

sense

cost

cork

strike

tender

peruke

 

TARAS SHEVCHENKO

National bard of Ukraine and noted artist Taras Shevchenko was born on March 9, 1814 in the village of Moryntsi, Kyiv gubernia in the family of serfs. Born as a serf, Shevchenko was orphaned in his early teens and grew up in poverty and misery. He was taught to read by the village precentor and was often beaten for wasting time of drawing, for which he had innate talent. At the age of 14 he was taken by his owner, P. Engelhardt, to serve as a houseboy. He travelled extensively with his owner, first to Vilno and then to St. Petersburg. In Vilno he learnt to speak Polish and met the famous Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz. Engelhardt noticed Shevchenkos artistic talent and apprenticed him to the painter V.V. Shyryaev for 4 years. During that period he met his compatriots I. Soshenko, Ye. Hrebinka,V. Hryhorovych and O.Venetsianov. Through them he met the Russian painter K. Bryullov. K. Bryullov painted the portrait of the Russian poet V. Zhukovskyi to be disposed of in a lottery. The portrait was bought by Tsaritsa because V. Zhukovskyi was the teacher of her children. The proceeds from the lottery, 2500 Rubles were used to buy Shevchenkos freedom from P. Engelhardt in 1838.

T. Shevchenko enrolled in the Academy of Fine Arts in St. Peterburg and pursued his art studies and general education. In 1840 he published his first collection of poems Kobzar. It was followed by the epic poem Haidamaky (Rebels) and the ballad Hamaliya.

After graduating from the Academy in1845 he became the member of the Kyiv Archeographic Commission. It was in this time that he wrote his most satirical and politically subversive poem Dream (1844) and Caucasus (1845). In 1845 he wrote his famous verse Testament.

In 1846 T. Shevchenko came to Kyiv and joined the secret Cyril and Methodius Brotherhood. A denunciation resulted in the arrest of the members of the Brotherhood. In 1847 T. Shevchenko was arrested and sent as a private to the Orenburg special corps in a remote area of the Caspian Sea. Tsar Nicholas I himself initiated the sentencing order preventing the prisoner from writing and painting. But T. Shevchenko managed to continue both.

In 1857 T. Shevchenko was released but he was not allowed to live in Ukraine. In 1860 T. Shevchenko decided to become a family man but his matrimonial plans were ruined. He lived alone in a small room in the Academy of Arts in St. Peterburg. He died on Sunday, February 26, 1861. Taras Shevchenko was buried in St. Peterburg but two month afterwards his remains were transferred to the Chernecha Hill near Kaniv, Ukraine.

Taras Shevchenko has a uniquely important place in Ukrainian history. He created the conditions that allowed the transformation of the Ukrainian literature into a fully functional modern literature. His poetry contributed greatly to the evolution of national Ukrainian consciousness. His influence on cultural and national life is felt to this day. T. Shevchenkos literary output consists of one collection of poetry Kobzar (Ukrainian Bard); the drama Nazar Stodolya; two dramatic fragments, nine novelettes, a diary, and an autobiography in Russian; and over 250 letters.

 

Vocabulary Notes

to be orphaned ,

to grow up ,

poverty and miser

village precentor

innate talent

to apprentice

to be disposed of in

to enroll in

collection of poems

to contribute to

 

TESTAMENT

Dig my grave and raise my barrow
By the Dnieper-side
In Ukraine, my own land,
fair land and wide.
I will lie and watch the cornfields,
Listen through the years
To the river voices roaring,
Roaring in my ears.

Bury me, be done with me,
Rise and break your chain,
Water your new liberty
With blood for rain.
Then, in the mighty family
Of all men that are free,
May be sometimes, very softly
You will speak of me?

 

KOBZAR

The mighty Dnieper roars and bellows,

The wind in anger howls and raves,

Down to the ground it bends the willows

And mountain-high lifts up the waves.

 

The pale-faced moon picked pit this moment

To peek out from behind a cloud,

Like a canoe upon the ocean

It first tips up and then dips down.

 

The cocks have not proclaimed the morning,

Theres not a sound as yet of man,

The owls in glades call out their warnings,

And ash-trees creak and creak again.

 

E x e r c i s e s

I. Answer the questions:

1. When was Taras Shevchenko born?

2. In what family was the bard born?

3. By whom he was taught to read?

4. What happened with the boy at 14years?

5. Where did Taras Shevchenko study?

6. When did T. Shevchenko publish the first collection of poems?

7. When was T. Shevchenko arrested and released?

8. When did Shevchenko die?

I. Say what statements are false and what are true; correct the false ones:

1. Shevchenko was orphaned in his early teens and grew up in poverty and misery.

2. He was taught to read by the village priest.

3. Born as a serf, Taras Shevchenko had to serve as a houseboy.

4. He wrote his poem Dream after graduating from the Academy.

5. In 1860 T. Shevchenko married.

6. Taras Shevchenko was buried in Moscow but two month afterwards his remains were transferred to the Chernecha Hill near Kaniv, Ukraine.

7. In 1847 T. Shevchenko was arrested and sent as a private to the Orenburg special corps in a remote area of the Caspian Sea.

8. His poetry contributed greatly to the evolution of national Ukrainian consciousness.

 

 

LESYA UKRAINKA

Lesya Ukrainka (Larysa Kosach) was born on February 25, 1871 in Novgorod-Volynskyi. Her father knew literature very well. He often read to his children the works by O. Pushkin, T. Shevchenko, M. Gogol, Marko Vovchok and especially satirical stories by Saltykov-Shchedrin.

Lesyas mother was a writer known by the literary name Olena Pchilka. Her mother was sister of M. Dragomanov. Many writers, painters, musicians gathered very often in their house. Among them were the poet M. Starytskyi, the composer M. Lysenko, and the famous Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko. From her childhood Lesya heard different discussions about Ukrainian history and literature. At the age of 4 Lesya learned to read and at 9 she wrote her first poem Hope. When she was 10 the family moved to Kyiv. She made great success but at the age of 13 she fell ill.

She had to stop her studies and was undergone the operation. At that time the book became her friend and her teacher. She read a lot, studying literature, art, history, geography and foreign languages: French, German, Latin, English, Italian, Polish and Spanish.

The first poem of the 13-yearold girl Lily of the Valley was published in Lviv magazine Zorya. She took her literary name Lesya Ukrainka because of her love to Ukraine. In 1888 she lived in Yalta where she created a series of poems Travelling to the Sea and Crimean Memories. In spite of operation her illness progressed, tuberculosis affected her arm. She spent much time in hospitals in Kyiv and abroad. Lesya Ukrainka wrote a lot at that time. Her poems begin to appear in magazines and newspapers.

In 1893-1907 her book of poems On the Wings of Songs, the poem Old Tale and drama Iphigenia in Tauris were published. In 1903-1907 she wrote her drams Cassandra, Autumn Tale and Stone Host in 1912. The peak of her poetic mastery was the Sylvan Song published in 1911 about the struggle between beauty and the evil.

At the beginning of 1913 she returned to her Motherland, Ukraine.
It was her last stay in Kyiv. The Ukrainian community organized a ceremonial meeting for the great poetess.

Lesya Ukrainka died on August 1, 1913 in Surani (Georgia), where she stayed for treatment and buried in Kyiv.

 

***

As a child I sometimes fell,

Hard enough for it to hurt

Though my heart with pain would swell,

They asked me: Did you hurt yourself?

Im all right, I would reply

My pride would then assert itself:

I laughed in order not to cry.

But now the drama soon will end;

For me, a bitter cup to sip,

And a clever epigram

Is on the brink of tongue and lip

But laugher may be merciless:

I fear the blade of open chaff.

And so, surrendering my pride

I cry in order not to laugh.

February 2, 1897.

 

E x e r c i s e s

I. Answer the questions:

1. When was Lesya Ukrainka born?

2. Why her literary name was Lesya Ukrainka?

3. Who were her parents?

4. What languages did Lesya Ukrainka know?

5. When did she write her first poem?

6. What is the main idea of her poetic masterpiece Sylvan Song?

7. At what age did Lesya Ukrainka die?

I. Say what statements are false and what are true; correct the false ones:

1. Lesya Ukrainkas father was a writer.

2. At the age of ten Lesya wrote her first poem.

3. Lesya Ukrainka knew seven foreign languages.

4. Her favourite poet was Taras Shevchenko.

5. The Sylvan Song is a poetic masterpiece of Lesya Ukrainka.

6. In 1893-1907 her book of poems On the Wings of Songs, the poem Old Tale and drama Iphigenia in Tauris were published.

7. Stone Host was written in 1912.

III.Fill in the gaps with the words and word-combinations from the text:

1. Lesyas mother was a writer known by the .. Olena Pchilka.

2. From her childhood Lesya heard different . about Ukrainian history and literature.

3. At the age of 4 Lesya learned .. and at 9 she wrote her first poem Hope.

4. In spite of operation her . progressed, tuberculosis affected her arm.

5. The peak of her . .. was the Sylvan Song.

 


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