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FROM THE HISTORY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

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Even at the ancient times diseases of people were compared with those of animals. Hippocrates and other known physicians made sections of animal corps to study the body structure, for the section of human body was not allowed by the church till the late Middle Ages. The veterinary medicine as a separate science appeared since the 17th century. At that time cattle plague was the most devastating disease that seriously affected Europe’s social and economic life. It greatly reduced the incomes of landowners, deprived merchants of products of animal origin, depleted peasants, while the urban population could obtain meat, dairy products, leather and wool goods at extremely high prices.

The plague was of such great concern that Italian physician Giovanni Lancisi was ordered by the government to investigate this disease when it first appeared in Italy in 1713. Lancisi developed some measures to control the epizootic; he established the quarantine, the inspection of meat, the destruction of sick animals and the hygienic control of the environment. The control procedures prescribed by Lancisi soon liberated Rome and its surrounding countryside from the plague, but the remainder continued to devastate European countries.

The devastation caused by rinderpest was so great in France that nearly half the cattle population was destroyed between 1710 and 1714. The King established a commission of physicians and agriculturists to determine what action was needed. After 40 years of reports, petitions, enormous economic losses a royal decree empowered Claude Bourgelat, a physician, who was an eminent authority on animal diseases, to establish a school at Lyon for the study of diseases of cattle, horses and other domestic animals. The school was opened in 1762 and soon gained fame for its useful advice on handling disease outbreaks. Students from all over France and Europe came in Lyon to study. Later on new schools were established in Vienna, Berlin, Hanover, Copenhagen and other cities of Europe.

The dissemination of disease control measures, the quarantine of sick animals and restriction of their carriers, the slaughter of diseased animals, cleaning of cattle housing, barns and sheds, avoiding fields and pastures where sick animals had grazed, all this had brought effect.



Here was the beginning of the significant contribution of veterinary medicine to society. Not only public health but also mankind’s economic and social well-being have benefited from the advancement of veterinary medicine. The protection of animal health resulted in an expanded rural economy that in turn provided a base for the industry and development of the whole world market. Many world-known scientists among them many Russian researchers like professor V.L. Jakimov (parasitology), academician K.I.Skryabin, (founder of the veterinary protozoology), epidemiologist professor S.N. Vyshelessky made a valuable contribution to the development of veterinary medicine.

 

Упражнение 1. Прочтите и переведите вышеприведенный текст, обращая внимание на необходимые слова и выражения.

ancient - древний Hippokrates - Гипократ

to compare - сравнивать physician - врач

cattle plague - чума скота to graze - пасти (-сь)

to deplete peasants - разорять крестьян to deprive - лишать

to be of great concern - иметь большое значение

environment - окружающая среда, условия

to destroy - уничтожать, разрушать dissemination - распространение

disease outbreak - вспышка болезни well-being - благосостояние

advancement - прогресс, движение вперед

valuable contribution - ценный вклад

 

Упражнение 2. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:

1. Чума КРС стала настоящим бедствием в 18-м веке. 2. Она серьезно поразила социальную и экономическую жизнь в Европе. 3. В Италии она впервые появилась в 1713 году. 4. Итальянский врач Ланцизи исследовал эту эпизоотию. 5. Он рекомендовал карантин, инспекцию мясных и молочных продуктов, забой пораженных животных и гигиену окружающей среды. 6. Процедуры, предписанные им, быстро избавили Рим и окружающую сельскую местность от болезни. 7. Во Франции почти половина КРС была уничтожена чумой между 1710 и 1740 годами. 8. Королевским указом врач Клод Буржеля был уполномочен открыть ветеринарную школу в Лионе для изучения болезней домашних животных. 9. Позднее новые ветеринарные школы были основаны во многих крупных городах Европы. 10. Применение мер контроля за заболеваниями домашнего скота стало началом реального вклада ветеринарной медицины в жизнь общества. 11. Защита здоровья животных привела к росту сельской экономики, что в свою очередь обеспечило базу промышленности. 12. Общественное здоровье и благополучие людей выиграли от прогресса ветеринарной медицины.

Упражнение 3. Перечислите по-английски меры контроля при эпизоотиях. Назовите результаты применения мер защиты здоровья животных.

Упражнение 4. Ответьте на вопросы:

1. What did stimulate the development of veterinary medicine? 2. What kind of animal diseases was particularly destructive? 3. What harm did the epizootic bring to the people? 4. Whose recommendations became very useful? 5. Where the first veterinary school was established? 6. How could veterinarians fight the epizootic? 7. Have the achievements of veterinary helped the mankind’s health and economy?

Задание 68. Прочтите и переведите нижеследующий текст.

MY FUTURE PROFESSION

It is not an easy job to choose one’s future profession. If you love animals, feel compassion for your sick animals, and you are ready to relieve their sufferings, you have made the right decision to become a veterinary surgeon (a veterinary or vet for short).

After graduated from the Academy young veterinarians can work on state or private farms, veterinary stations or bacteriological laboratories.

Certainly, you have a general notion of your profession but you haven’t got the slightest idea of the daily routine of a veterinary surgeon. For example, several years of large animal practice on cattle farm with no fixed working hours are a hard school of daily life: regular examination of a herd or individual animals; vaccinations, injections (in case of disease outbreaks); feeding and maintenance etc.

Vets take various measures to prevent contagious and non-contagious diseases of animals. They also treat sick animals and perform inspections of slaughtered cattle as well as of meat and milk products for sale.

So a veterinary practitioner has to work as physician, surgeon, epizootologist, parasitologist.

Nowadays small animal practice is the object of great consideration in large cities because many people keep pets at home (cats, dogs, rats, mice, birds, exotics, etc).

Thus in a city a veterinary practitioner has a great choice: he may have small animal surgery or general practice, or he may also have house call veterinary practice. Some veterinarians may own a pet hospital or be employed in mixed animal practice while others may be employed at emergency veterinary clinics, or have private veterinary (equine or exotic) practice.

To protect a man against diseases common to man and animals is a task of veterinary medicine. In large cities stray cats and dogs wandering along the streets in search of food offer many problems for vets. Stray animals can be vectors of dangerous infectious disease, harm people health and infect food supplies.

Another aspect connected with human health protection is the use of animals in medical researches, for example, for creating new life-saving remedies or studying their activities. The assistance of veterinary science is essential to do it.

Thus the work of veterinarians is closely related to urgent and vital problems of human society. Academician K.I.Skryabin once said: “A doctor treats man while a veterinarian treats mankind”.

Задание 69. Перескажите текст задания 68 по-английски.


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