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Electric Gear Change Control System
This electric gear change control system is for large vehicles. It consists of three basic elements: a controller located near the driver, an
electric cable to the transmission, and a solenoid actuated valve on the transmission that receives the signal from the driver to change gear selection.
The system is used in large trucks where the transmission is mounted far from the engine. The control system provides the driver a high degree of operation flexibility. The system also incorporates an inhibitor which prevents accidental down changing at high vehicle speed.
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Lotus Elan Саг
Lotus Elan is a car, capable of carrying four person and their luggage at great speed and in comfort. It is the finest sport car.
In construction, it is very similar to the two-seater Elan car, with a steel chassis, at the front of which the 16-litre engine is installed and at the rear the differential is located. The body is a glass-fiber unit, carrying no chassis stresses. The whole car is just 2 ft longer and 10 inch wider than the previous version.
With such a light and aerodynamic car the driver can reach maximum 6500 rpm easily. Despite its high power output and two carburettors the engine always started easily. An engine is a smooth unit with a high torque.
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Autotest of Volvo
Since previous tests of the car the engine capacity has been increased from 1.778 to 1.986 c.c.
Earlier Volvos had some real difference in appearance but the current series have international look, but with considerably more space for passengers and baggage than the earlier models. Technically, they are conventional, with the 2-litre 4-cylinder engine mounted in front, and rear-wheels drive through a 4-speed gearbox and coil-spring live axle.
Brakes are servo-assisted discs, the rear brakes incorporating small drums for the parking brake. Twin hydraulic circuits unite both front brakes to one rear brake, so that when one circuit fails only one brake is lost.
The synchromesh gearbox is satisfactory. In average conditions the car rides well.
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Finding a Fault in the Car
If your car doesn't start in the morning, you should check three things first: the battery, the fuel level and the spark plugs. It is easy to repair these faults. If the battery is flat, you should recharge it. If this doesn't work, you should replace it. If the petrol tank is empty, fill it up. If the spark plugs are dirty, clean them, and if the gap in a spark plug is too narrow or too wide, adjust it to the correct width.
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Let's look closer at the engine components that operate together to generate power. The basic unit of the engine is the piston which moves up and down inside a cylinder. As air is compressed in the cylinder, fuel is injected on top of the piston. Under high pressure the fuel mixes with the hot air end self-ignites causing combustion. The force of the combustion pushes the piston and connecting rod down turning the crankshaft and flywheel which drive other components.
During engine operation the piston goes through four strokes: intake, compression, power and exhaust. During the four strokes, the piston moves down and up to complete cycles.
Intake: During the intake stroke the piston moves down in the cylinder pulling air past an open intake valve into the combustion chamber.
Compression: During the compression stroke all valves are closed, and piston moves up in the cylinder compressing the air. As the air molecules are compressed the air temperature increases dramatically to about 1000° F (537° C). As the piston nears the top of its stroke, fuel is injected into the combustion chamber on top of the piston. The fuel mixes with the hot compressed air and causes combustion.
Power: During the power stroke the valves are closed as the forces from combustion push the piston and connecting rod down, thereby turning the crankshaft. The heat energy has now been converted into mechanical power.
Exhaust: During the exhaust stroke the inertial force of the turning flywheel helps continue the rotation of the crankshaft to push the piston up again in the cylinder forcing the burned gases out the open exhaust valve. This completes the four strokes of the piston. These four strokes are repeated over and over as the engine operates.
Diesel engine offers the following advantages over automotive-type gasoline engines:
Diesel engines have higher compression ratios and therefore burn fuel more completely and efficiently.
Diesel engines have no electrical ignition system to fail or be maintained. They are built with heavy-duty parts to withstand the higher compression ratios and to operate for long periods with minimum breakdown. In on-highway trucks for instance, diesel engines have a projected service life of many hundreds of thousands of miles.
It depends on engine size, but diesel engines generally produce more torque and power output than gasoline engines.
1.What takes place in the combustion chamber during the intake stroke?
2.What takes place in the cylinder during the compression stroke?
3.What takes place in the combustion chamber during the power stroke?
4.What takes place in the combustion chamber during the exhaust stroke?
5.What advantages do diesel engines offer?
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