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TEXT

The Саr and the Environment

Most of us know that cars cause air pollution. Scientists tell us that if we don't do something soon, we will be unable to repair the damage that we are causing to our planet. What are some of the things we can do to help?

Buy a fuel-efficient car and keep it that way

Good gas is a way to stop pollution. Choose a car that is friendly to the environment when you buy one.

Keep your car tuned up

A car that badly tuned releases more pollutants into the air. If you keep track of your gas mileage, you'll know when something is wrong. A badly tuned car uses almost 10% more gas than a well-tuned car. Other ways to waste gas are:

Idling your car unnecessarily. If you are stopped for longer than a minute, it is more fuel efficient to turn off your engine.

Using dirty fuel filters. Dirty fuel filters waste gas.

Air Conditioner Maintenance. Of course, this causes a big prob­lem for both us and our mechanics. Our mechanics will have to make sure that there are no leaks, and fix them if there are, before they can add any R-12 (freon) to our air conditioning systems. Naturally, this cost will be passed along to us.

Section 14

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TEXT

Gas Ecology

There are many ways that we can reduce pollution by observing good gas ecology — that is using our cars in fuel efficient ways.

Don't move the car unless you are going somewhere. Plan ahead. Starting the car up just to move it a short distance produces more pol­lutants than hours of driving on the freeway.

Don't use your heater until the car is warmed up. The engine will start more quickly, because it won't be losing heat to warm you.

Try to drive within 35-45 miles per hour when possible. Driving at slower speeds reduces engine efficiency and causes more pollutants.

Don't make fast starts or stops. Fast starts can burn more than 50% gas than regular acceleration (as well as cause 50% more emis­sions). When a big burst of gas enters the engine, much of catalytic converter's job is bypassed and the unburned gas comes out the tailpipe or is sent into the converter. Rapid acceleration is only called for in emergency or passing situations. Stopping rapidly also leaves the en­gine with a lot of unburned gas to deal with. This results in damage to the converter and pollution.



Try not to idle. At bank lines and fast food places with over thirty second waits, turn the engine off, and restart it. It is more fuel efficient, and causes less pollution. The only time that idling is a good thing is after a long, fast run. Idling the engine for a minute or so after one of these helps get rid of any hot spots and fuel vapors.

Keep to steady speeds on the highway. Changing speeds produces more pollution and uses more gas. Don't use the air conditioner unless you have to. It makes your engine work harder, uses more gas, and causes more pollution. Most evaporative emissions get into the atmos­phere when we put gas in our cars. Make sure your gas cap is the right one, and in good working order. Gas caps don't cost that much, but are very important in anti-pollution.

Since gasoline expands, never overfill your tank. It will wind up leaking out.

Use known brands of gas. Poor quality gas will not save you money. Instead, it will foul your engine and cause it to function badly. Try several different brands and octane ratings to find out which makes you car the happiest, and stay with it.

Section 15

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TEXT

Road Safety

Every year several thousand people are lolled on the roads. Every year hundred thousand people are injured. These people are killed and injured in road accidents.

Accidents are often caused by carelessness of the people. There are rules that help to make the roads safe, but people do not follow the rules.

In our country as in most other countries traffic keeps to the right, but in Great Britain traffic keeps to the left. While driving the car you can get into trouble. The data indicate that in road accidents the pas­sengers who use different kinds of safety belts suffer from the impacts less than the passengers who don't use ones. It was shown that safety belts had reduced the risk of serious injuries.

Accidents can be divided into three types as follows:

1.Head-on impacts between cars;

2.Side impacts caused by accidents at intersections;

3.Rear impacts in which the car (often stationary) is struck from the rear by another car.

Head-on accidents are the most numerous in which the driver and the front seat passenger suffer head injuries. That is why the most im­portant function of safety belts is to protect the driver and passenger from head injury.

In up-to-date cars various types of safety cushions are used to pro­tect the lives of those sitting in the car. But the gold rule is to be careful on the road while driving the car.

As far as the pedestrians are concerned they should obey the fol­lowing rules: before crossing the road, stop and look both ways. Look right, look left, and then look right again. If the road is clear, it is safe to cross it.

 

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