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Переведите на русский язык микротексты. Обратите внимание на выделенные грамматические структуры.
Текст № 1
The automobile is known to be made up of three basic parts: the engine, the body and chassis,the engine being the source of power. We know the body to include the hood and fenders and accessories. The bodyshould provide protection to the passengers from wind, cold and rain. Thusto shape a car meansto do it in such a way that it offers small resistance to the air.
Brakes are necessaryfor stopping the car.
Most braking systemsused today are hydraulic.
Текст № 2
The engine is known to be attached to the frame in three or four points. Noise and vibrations are inherent in engine operations.To prevent this noise from passing to the frame, the engineshould be insulated from the frame by washers.We know the frame to provide support for engine, body and power train,the body providing protection to the passengers from wind and rain. The frame is made of channel sections welded together.
We know the clutch to consist of two plates: the driven plate and the pressure plate.The driven plate is known to be situated between the flywheel and the pressure plate. The clutchused for engagement the engine and the gearbox is incorporated within the flywheel housing.
To guidethe car it is necessary to have some means of turningthe car, the steering wheel being linked to the front wheels for this purpose.
The frame is known to be the structural centre of the car. It is made of channel sectionswelded together, cross-members providing support Tor the engine and wheels. We know the frame to be rigid. Noise and vibrations are inherent in engine operation. To prevent this noise and vibrationsfrom passing to the frame and to the passengers of the car, t lie engineshould be insulated from the frame by rubber washers.
We know the chassis to be one of the most important units of the car.The chassis is known to consist of a power train, a frame with axles, wheels and springs. Itshould be noted that the chassis includes the brake and the steering systems as well. Brakes are necessaryto stop the car. Springs are used with additional devicescalled shock absorbers. The front wheels are attached to the rods by steering knuckle arms,the same wheels being on pivots.
Текст № 6
We know the power train to include the clutch, gearbox, propeller shaft, rear axle, final drive and differential. The clutch is usedfor engaging the engine with the gearbox,the gearbox being located between (he clutch and the propeller shaft. The clutch is known to consist of two platesincorporated within the flywheel housing.
To shape the car meansto make it in such manner that it offers small resistance to the air.
Текст № 7
We know the engine to be the source of power. In some types of engines a V-type fan belt is utilized to drive the fan,the same belt being used for driving the generator pulley and the water pump.The engine is known to comprise the fuel, cooling, electric and lubricating systems. It should be noted that the gasoline pump is operated from the cam-
shaft by the engine,called also the power plant. To guide the car means to turn it in one direction or the other.
Brakes are known to be one of the most important mechanisms of the car. They are necessaryfor stopping the car. Most braking systems used today are hydraulic,many vehicles using power brakes.We know the brakes to be applied to four wheels.
In order to stop the car, the drivershould press down on the pedal. When the pedal is pressed down the brakes are applied and the car is stopped.
In order to drive the car, the driver should have some means of turning the front wheels.We know the steering wheel to be located at the front of the driver. It is linked by gears and levers to the front wheels, these wheels being on pivots. The front wheels are known to swing to the
left or right when the steering wheel is turned in one direction or the other. The front wheels are attached to the rods, the rods are, in turn, attached to the pitman arm.
We know the automobile to be made up of three basic parts: the engine, the chassis and the body. The bodyshould provide protection to the passengers of the car.The chassis is known to consist of a power train, frame with axles and wheels. The chassis includes the brake and the steering systems,the brakes being the most important mechanism of the car. To provide a satisfactory smooth ride, an additional device, called a shock absorber, is used with each spring.
Текст № 11
Brakes are known to be used for stopping the car. Most braking systemsused today are hydraulic,many vehicles having power brakes. To stop the car, the drivershould apply the brakes.We know the brakes to have been applied to the front wheels. At present the brakes are applied to all four wheels. The brakes are controlled by a pedal. When the driver presses down on the pedal the brakes are applied and the car is stopped.
Текст № 12
The clutch is known to be the part of the power train. Besides the clutch, the power train also includes the gearbox, propeller shaft, rear axle, final drive, differential and axle shafts. The gearboxnamed transmission is located between the clutch and the propeller shaft.We know the clutch to consist of the driven plate and the pressure plate,the driven plate having fabric linings on each side. To connect the engine with the gearbox, the drivershould engage the clutch.
Текст № 13
The frame in considered to be the structural centre of any vehicle, us itshould provide support for the engine, body and power train members. The frame is made of sectionswelded together.
We know the frame to be reinforced by cross-members.To providesupport for the engine and wheels, the frame should be rigid and strong. Noise and vibrations being inherent in engine operation, the engine is insulated from the frame by rubber washers.
The automobile is known to consist of the engine, the body and the chassis,the engine being the source of power. The body has a hood and lenders and accessories: heater, lights and radio. Itshould provide protection to the passengers from wind and rain.The chassis is known to include the power train, frame and wheels.
Streamlining is an important factor.To streamline a car meansto shape it in such a manner that it offers small resistance to the air.
We know the steering system to be one of the most important mechanisms of the car.The steering system is known to consist of a steering wheel, gears, tie-rod, pitman arm and other units. The steering wheel is attached to the front wheels by gears and levers,the front wheels being on pivots. In orderto turn the car in one direction or the other, the drivershould turn the steering wheel. The steering wheelconnected to the front wheels turns the car.
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