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Anatomy and Physiology of the Reproductive System

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The reproductive system is a collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing a new life. The major organs of the reproductive system include the external genitalia and internal organs. The anatomy of male and female reproductive system is different. The male reproductive system includes the scrotum, testicles, spermatic ducts, sex glands and penis. The female reproductive anatomy includes vagina, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Reproductive physical maturity and the capacity for human reproduction begin during puberty. During puberty, the hypothalamus produces hormones, which stimulate the gonads to produce testosterone (males) and estrogen and progesterone (females).

Male puberty generally occurs between the ages of 13-15 and is characterized by the secretion of the male hormone testosterone, which stimulates spermatogenesis, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics (increased height and weight, broadening shoulders, voice deepening, and muscle development).

Female puberty generally occurs between the ages of 9-13, and results in ovulation and menstruation, which involve cyclic hormonal changes in estrogen and progesterone. Secondary sexual characteristics (breast enlargement, widening hips, increased height, weight and fat distribution) also occur as part of the female pubertal process.

Function of the reproductive system is reproduction. Fertilization is the first step in pregnancy. During coitus (sexual intercourse) between a male and a female, semen is released into the vagina and transported through the uterus into the fallopian tube. Fertilization can only occur if intercourse takes place before the time of ovulation that usually occurs “mid-cycle”, or about 14 days before the woman's next menstrual period. At the time of ovulation, the ovum is released from the ovary and transported in the fallopian tube where it remains for about 24-48 hours. Pregnancy is most likely to occur if fresh semen is present when ovulation occurs.

Sperm cells remain viable within the female reproductive tract for about 72 hours. During fertilization, the sperm enters the cell membrane of the ovum so the nuclei of the sperm and egg cells combine to form a zygote. The zygote will remain in the fallopian tube for approximately three days before it travels to the uterus where it will remain for approximately four to five days before implantation into the uterine lining.

 

Exercise 5. Answer the questions to the text:

1. What is reproductive system?

2. What does the word puberty mean?

3. What does the hypothalamus regulate?

4. When does male puberty occur?

5. When does female puberty occur?

6. When can fertilization occur?

7. How long do sperm cells remain viable in the reproductive tract?

8. What is zygote?

 

Exercise 6. Match the words from the column A with those from the column B to form the word-combinations. There are possible several variants with one word. Translate them into Ukrainian:

Column A Column B
cell intercourse
sexual membrane
pubertal changes
hormonal process
voice tube
fallopian deepening
widening lining
uterine hips

 

Exercise 7. Match the terms with the definitions:

1. puberty 2. testosterone 3. estrogen 4. progesterone 5. fertilization 7. gonads a) A white crystalline steroid hormone produced primarily in the testes and responsible for the development and maintenance of male secondary sex characteristics. b) A steroid hormone, secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary and by the placenta, that acts to prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized ovum, to maintain pregnancy, and to promote development of the mammary glands. c) The act or process of initiating biological reproduction by insemination or pollination. d) The stage of adolescence in which an individual becomes physiologically capable of sexual reproduction. e) Any of several steroid hormones produced chiefly by the ovaries and responsible for promoting estrus and the development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics. f) Any organ or gland in which gametes are produced; an ovary or testis.

Exercise 8. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations:

Статева фізична зрілість; виробляти тестостерон, естроген та прогестерон; характеризуватися виділенням чоловічого гормону тестостерону; включати циклічні гормональні зміни; переноситися через матку до фаллопієвих труб; запліднити яйцеклітину; залишатися в фаллопієвих трубах; відбуватися перед періодом овуляції; проникати в клітинну мембрану; з'єднуватися, щоб сформувати зиготу; вторинні статеві характеристики.

Exercise 9. Insert the necessary preposition:

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