АвтоАвтоматизацияАрхитектураАстрономияАудитБиологияБухгалтерияВоенное делоГенетикаГеографияГеологияГосударствоДомДругоеЖурналистика и СМИИзобретательствоИностранные языкиИнформатикаИскусствоИсторияКомпьютерыКулинарияКультураЛексикологияЛитератураЛогикаМаркетингМатематикаМашиностроениеМедицинаМенеджментМеталлы и СваркаМеханикаМузыкаНаселениеОбразованиеОхрана безопасности жизниОхрана ТрудаПедагогикаПолитикаПравоПриборостроениеПрограммированиеПроизводствоПромышленностьПсихологияРадиоРегилияСвязьСоциологияСпортСтандартизацияСтроительствоТехнологииТорговляТуризмФизикаФизиологияФилософияФинансыХимияХозяйствоЦеннообразованиеЧерчениеЭкологияЭконометрикаЭкономикаЭлектроникаЮриспунденкция

B). Open the brackets. c). Put questions to the underlined words

Читайте также:
  1. Answer the following questions
  2. Answer the following questions.
  3. Answer the following questions.
  4. Answer the following questions.
  5. Answer the questions
  6. Answer the questions
  7. Answer the questions
  8. Answer the questions
  9. Answer the questions
  10. Answer the questions
  11. Answer the questions
  12. Answer the questions

History of Medical Microbiology

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (Антони ван Левенгук) is considered to be the one of the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope. In 1676, he (to observe) bacteria and other microorganisms, using a single-lens microscope of his own design.

In 1796, using an ancient Chinese technique for smallpox vaccination, Edward Jenner (to develop) a method using cowpox а to successfully immunize a child against smallpox. The same principles (to use) for developing vaccines today.

Following on from this, in 1857 Louis Pasteur also (to design) vaccines against several diseases as well as pasteurization for food preservation.

Joseph Lister is considered to be the father of antiseptic surgery. By sterilizing the instruments with diluted carbolic acid and using it to clean wounds, post-operative infections (to reduce) making surgery safer for patients.

In the years between 1876-1884 Robert Koch provided much insight into infectious disease. He (to be) one of the first scientists to focus on the isolation of bacteria in pure culture. This (to give) rise to germ theory, a certain microorganism being responsible for a certain disease. He (to develop) a series of criteria around this that have become known as the Koch's postulates.

In 1884 Hans Christian Gram developed the method of staining bacteria, to make them more visible and differentiable under a microscope. This technique (to use) widely today.

In 1929 Alexander Fleming developed the most commonly used antibiotic substance both at the time and now: penicillin.

Exercise 17. *Translate into English using Modal verbs or their equivalents:

1. Медична мікробіологія повинна вивчати біологічні властивості мікроорганізмів, їх систематику, екологію, взаємовідносини з іншими організмами, в першу чергу — патогенез (механізм розвитку) захворювань, що можуть спричинятися мікроорганізмами.

2. Медична мікробіологія повинна розробляти методи мікробіологічної діагностики, специфічної профілактики та етіотропної терапії (тобто спрямованої на причину захворювання, мікроорганізм-збудник).

3. Власне, медична мікробіологія — це пропедевтика інфекційних захворювань та епідеміології.

4. На кафедрі мікробіології, вірусології та імунології можна одержати повні дані з етіології та початкові — з питань патогенезу, клініки, діагностики, лікування і профілактики інфекційних захворювань.



5. Медична мікробіологія — самостійна медична наука, а лікар-мікробіолог — самостійна лікарська професія.

6. Основне завдання лікаря-мікробіолога — визначення мікробіологічного діагнозу.

7. Практична робота лікаря-мікробіолога повинна бути пов’язана з лабораторною діагностикою.

8. Тільки злагоджена робота лікаря-клініциста і лікаря-мікробіолога зможе дати можливість ефективно діагностувати і лікувати багато захворювань.

Exercise 18. Give as much information as you can using a plan:

1. Microbiology

2. Modern microbiology

3. A medical microbiologist

4. History of Medical Microbiology

Exercise 19. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following terms:мікробіолог, мікробіологія:

“Мікробіолог”

1. He studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth.

2. Medical microbiologists often serve as consultants for physicians, providing identification of pathogens and suggesting treatment options.

3. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch are considered to be the founders of medical microbiology.

4. A medical microbiologist is an expert in such field of medicine as Microbiology, the branch of biology concerned with the study of microorganisms.

5.They may also assist in preventing or controlling epidemics and outbreaks of disease.

“Мікробіологія”

1. Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch are considered to be the founders of medical microbiology.

2. Microbiology is the scientific study of microscopic organisms, including protozoans, yeasts, algae, molds, microscopic fungi, bacteria, and viruses.

3. It is concerned with the structure, function, and classification of these organisms and with ways of controlling and using their activities.

4. Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines such as virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology.

5. Medical microbiology related to applied sciences is a branch of medicine concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

 

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: багатоклітинні мікроскопічні організми мікроорганізми, що викликають хворобу шляхи передачі інфекції непатогенні види та їх властивості шкідливий вплив виробляти пеніцилін спадковість та мінливість галузь медицини покращення здоров’я спалах епідемії   II. Дайте відповідь на питання: What organisms does microbiology study? What is microbiology concerned with? What sub-disciplines does microbiology encompass? What branches can modern microbiology be classified into? What kind of microbiology is concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases?   III. Розкрийте поняття: Мікробіологія Мікробіолог

 

Microorganisms

 

Exercise 1. Topic Vocabulary:

acquire, v [ə 'kwaiə] набувати, здобувати
allow, v [ə' lau] дозволяти
attach, v [ə'tætʃ] прикріпляти
avoid, v [ə'vɔɪd] уникати
chemicals, n [kemikəls] хімічні речовини
curved, adj [kə:vd] вигнутий
cytoskeleton, n [saitəu 'skelitən] цитоскелет
gain, v ['ɡein] набрати (вагу)
modify, v ['modifai] видозмінювати
mucous, adj ['mjukəs] слизовий
multiply, v ['mʌltiplai] збільшувати(ся)
nutrient, adj ['nju:trɪənt] поживний
occur, v [ə 'kə:] траплятися
rod- shaped, adj ['rɔdʃeipt] паличкоподібний
species, n ['spiʃiz] біологічний вид
survive, v [sə 'vaiv] вціліти
tetanus, n ['tetənəs] правець (стовбняк)

Exercise 2. Pay attention to the Singular and Plural forms of the Nouns and try to remember:

Singular Plural
species – ['spi:ʃɪz] bacterium – [ bæk 'tɪərɪəm] coccus – ['kɒkəs] bacillus – [ bə 'sɪləs] spirillum – [spaɪ ' rɪləm] vibrio – ['v(a)ibriəʋ] flora – ['fl ɔ: r ə] viscus – ['viskəs] atrium – ['eitiəm] species – ['spi:ʃɪz] bacteria – [bæk ˊ tɪərɪə] cocci – [ˊkɔksaɪ] bacilli – [beˊsɪlaɪ] spirilla – [spaɪˊ rɪlə] vibrios – ['vaibriəus] florae (s) – ['fl ɔ : ri:] viscera – ['visərə] atria – ['eitriə]

 

Exercise 3. Give the Plural of the following Nouns:

Microflora, index, library, foot, bacterium, species, mouse, tooth, nucleus, ray, atrium, policeman streptococcus, viscus, child, datum, formula, mycobacterium, tooth, fungus, phenomenon, basis, leaf, fish, series, coccus, vibrio, vertebra, life, box, mouth, ganglion, speech, family.

Exercise 4. Make adjectives from the nouns and translate them into Ukrainian. Make the word-combinations of your own:

e.g. - atmosphere – atmospheric (атмосфера – атмосферний)

Mucosa, biology, infection, bacterium, patient, cell, parasite, pathogen, tuberculosis, membrane, environment, genetics, therapy, nutrient, parasite, sphere, microscope.

Exercise 5. Translate the word-combinations and use them into the sentences of your own:

Unfavorable reactions; atmospheric free oxygen; life and growth of microorganisms; slightly curved in shape; the wide variety of shape; to acquire nutrients; the conditions of the environment; the process of bacteria division; to divide extremely rapidly; persistent pains; to increase in size up to a certain limit; to cause skin infections; the major cause of human death; to impair the health; to secrete chemicals; a mucous membrane; a branch of microbiology; to occur in medicine

 

Exercise 6: Read and translate the text:

Microorganisms

A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism which may be a single cell or multicellular organism. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leewenhoek’s discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a miscroscope of his own design.

All the existing microorganisms can be divided into two main groups – aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic microorganisms must have atmospheric free oxygen for their life and growth. However one knows that free oxygen is not favourable for the development of anaerobic microorganisms.

Most bacterial species are either spherical, called cocci or rod -shaped, called bacilli. Some rod-shaped bacteria, called vibrios, are slightly curved or comma-shaped; others, called spirilla, can be spiral-shaped.

This wide variety of shapes is determined by the bacterial cell wall and cytoskeleton, and it is important because it can influence the ability of bacteria to acquire nutrients, attach to surfaces, swim through liquids etc.

When bacteria multiply they divide. The growing organism increases in size up to a certain limit and in due time divides. The process of division depends on the conditions of the environment. Under optimal conditions, bacteria can grow and divide extremely rapidly, and bacterial population can double as quickly as every 9.8 minutes.

If bacteria form a parasitic association with other organisms, they are classed as pathogens. Pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human death and diseases and cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, cholera and tuberculosis. Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, and meningitis.

Other bacteria are the essential part of the normal human flora and usually exist on the skin or mucous membrane without causing any disease at all. In fact they help to protect us from becoming infected with harmful microbes.

Bacteria frequently secrete chemicals into their environment in order to modify it favourably. The secretions are often proteins and may act as enzymes that digest some forms of food. The understanding of bacterial metabolism and genetics allow the use of biotechnology for the production of therapeutic proteins, such as insulin.

The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

 

Exercise 7. Find corresponding equivalents:

1. галузь медицини 2. невід'ємна частина 3. виділити хімічні речовини 4. атмосферний вільний кисень 5. життя та ріст мікроогранізмів 6. причина смерті людини 7. процес поділу клітин 8. погіршувати здоров’я 9. паличкоподібні бактерії 10. викликати інфекцію 11. умови навколишнього середовища 12. збільшувати(ся) у розмірі до певної межі 1. atmospheric free oxygen 2.process of bacterial division 3. the conditions of the environment 4. rod –shaped bacteria 5. to cause skin infection 6. life and growth of microorganisms 7. to increase in size up to a certain limit 8. the major cause of human death 9. to impair the health 10. a branch of medicine 11. in order to secrete chemicals 12. the essential part

Exercise 8. Answer the questions:

1. What is a microorganism?

2. Who was the one of the first to observe microorganisms using a microscope?

3. What conditions are favourable for aerobic microorganisms?

4. What shape do cocci have?

5. What bacteria are called bacilli?

6. When do bacteria grow and multiply extremely rapidly?

7. How do pathogens influence the human body?

8. What diseases can be caused by bacteria?

9. How can people use bacteria?

10.What science studies bacteria?

Exercise 9. Match the terms with their explanations:

1. bacteria   2. microorganism   3. cell   4. cytoskeleton   5. pathogen   6. anaerobic   7. aerobic   8. microscope a) is any organism, such as a bacterium, protozoan, or virus, of microscopic size; b) requiring the absence of or not dependent on the presence of oxygen; c) is a microorganism such as a bacterium that parasitizes an animal, plant or man and produces a disease; d) is a the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms. It consists of a nucleus, containing the genetic material, surrounded by the cytoplasm in which are mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes, and other organelles; e) depending on oxygen; f) is an optical instrument that uses a lens or combination of lenses to produce a magnified image of a small, close object; g) a network of fibrous proteins that governs the shape and movement of a biological cell; h) a very large group of microorganisms all of which lack a distinct nuclear membrane and have a cell wall of unique composition.

Exercise 10. Choose the Noun from list B to modify the Verb from list A so as to make sense. Translate the word combinations into the native language and make the sentences of your own:

List A List B
1. therapeutic 2. mucous 3. atmospheric 4. typhoid 5. microscopic 6. rod-shaped 7. parasitic 8. anaerobic 9. bacterial 10. human 1. organism 2. oxygen 3. microorganisms 4. bacteria 5. flora 6. association 7. fever 8. membrane 9. metabolism 10. proteins

 

Exercise 11. Complete the sentences:

1. A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism, which may be…

2. … must have atmospheric free oxygen for their life and growth.

3. One knows that oxygen is unfavourable for … .

4. Rod-shaped bacteria are called … .

5. When bacterium multiplies it…

6. Under optimal conditions bacterial population can double as quickly as …

7. Pathogens are the microorganisms that can cause infections such as ….

8. Bacteria are used in medicine for … .

Exercise 12. Find corresponding equivalents:

Вільний кисень; сприятливий для розвитку; види бактерій; паличкоподібні бактерії; вигнуті або у формі коми; спіралеподібна бактерія; поживні речовини; прикріпити до поверхні; впливати на здатність бактерій; розмножуватися та ділитися; збільшуватися у розмірі; процес поділу; подвоюватися кожні 2 хвилини; умови навколишнього середовища; слизова оболонка; галузь мікробіології; причина смерті людини.

Exercise 13. *Fill in the gaps with the words and word-combinations from the box:

On 17 March 2013, _____ reported data that suggested microbial life

On 17 March 2013, _____ reported data that suggested microbial life forms thrive in the Mariana Trench. the _____ spot in the Earth's oceans. Other researchers reported related studies that _____ thrive inside rocks up to 1900feet (580 meters) below _____ under 8500 feet (2590 m) of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States. _____ to one researcher,"You can find microbes everywhere — they're extremely adaptable to _____, and survive wherever they are."

According; microbes; conditions; deepest; the sea floor; researchers

Exercise 14. *Fill in prepositions from the box below where necessary:

Microorganisms live … every part … the biosphere including soil, hot springs, …. the ocean floor, high … the atmosphere and deep inside rocks …. the Earth's crust . Microorganisms are crucial … nutrient recycling … ecosystems as they act as decomposers. As some microorganisms can fix nitrogen, they are a vital part … the nitrogen cycle, and recent studies indicate that airborne microbes may play a role … precipitation and weather.

Microbes are also exploited …. people … biotechnology, both … traditional food and beverage preparation, and … modern technologies based … genetic engineering. However there are many pathogenic microbes which are harmful and can even cause death … plants and animals.

within; of; to; by; on

Exercise 15. Make the sentences interrogative and negative and translate them:

Pay attention!We haveto examine. We do not have to examine.

The doctor hadto treat. Did the doctor have to treat?

1. Microorganisms can be divided into two groups.

2. Aerobic microorganisms had to have atmospheric free oxygen.

3. Bacterial population may double every 9.8 minutes.

4. The growing organism was allowed to increases in size.

5. The process of division is to depend on the environment.

6. Pathogenic bacteria will be able to cause the human death

7. The scientist could observe a rapid growth of microorganisms under the microscope.

8. The doctor has to determine the origin of the disease as soon as possible.

 

Exercise 16. Put the predicates into the Past and Future using equivalents of the Modal verbs. Translate the sentences:

1. Bacteria can be seen under the electron microscope.

2. Cetax may be indicated for the treatment of patient with genitourinary infections caused by microorganisms.

3. An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

4. Bacterial infections must be treated with antibiotics.

5. The patient can gain his body weight in some months.

6. The patient must avoid stress and physical exertion.

7. Chlamidia may be involved in coronary heart disease.

8.Bacteria may have very different morphologies and metabolisms.

Exercise 17. Choose proper variant of Modal verbs. Read and translate into native language:

In 1876, Robert Koch established that microbes can/could cause disease. He found that the blood of cattle (велика рогата худоба) that were infected with anthrax always had large numbers of Bacillus anthracis. Koch found that he can/could transmit anthrax from one animal to another by taking a small sample of blood from the infected animal and injecting it into a healthy one, and this caused the healthy animal to become sick. He also found that he can/could grow the bacteria in a nutrient broth (бульйон), then inject it into a healthy animal, and cause illness. Based on these experiments, he devised criteria for establishing a causal link between a microbe and a disease and these are now known as Koch's postulates. Although these postulates cannot/could not be applied in all cases, they do retain historical importance to the development of scientific thought and are still being used today.

Exercise 18. Put questions to the underlined words:

1. Frequently bacteria may secrete chemicals into their environment.

2. Disinfectants must be used to kill bacteria.

3. Robert Koch might work on cholera and tuberculosis.

4. First it was Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who was able to observe bacteria in 1676.

5. The bacterial secretion can act as enzymes.

6. Bacteria have to grow and divide extremely rapidly.

7. The process of division will be able to depend on the conditions of the environment.

8. Scientists were allowed to use different techniques to promote the growth of bacteria.

Exercise 19. Arrange the following sentences in a correct order to describe the following terms: “мікроорганізми”, “бактеріологія”:

“Мікроорганізми”

1. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek was the first who observed microorganisms, using microscopes of his own design.

2. Microorganisms are important because they play a key role in many processes that involve human life and health.

3. The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a branch of biology concerned with the scientific study of protozoans, yeasts, algae, molds, microscopic fungi, bacteria, and viruses.

4. All the existing microorganisms can be divided into two main groups – aerobic and anaerobic.

5. A microorganism or microbe is a microscopic organism which may be a single cell or multicellular organism.

 

“Бактеріологія”

1. Bacteriology as a science studies the identification, classification, and characterization of bacterial species.

2. Bacteria are microscopic single-celled organisms which can live as independent organisms or, dependently, as parasites.

3. A person who studies bacteriology is called a bacteriologist.

4. Bacteriology as a branch of microbiology is concerned with the scientific study of bacteria and their relation to medicine and other areas such as agriculture and industry.

5.Robert Koch, a German physician, is considered to be one of the founders of bacteriology, who received the Nobel Prize in 1905 for his discoveries of anthrax disease and the bacteria, responsible for tuberculosis and cholera.

Exercise 20. Translate into English using Modal verbs or their equivalents:

1. Саме Кох зміг встановити, що мікроби можуть викликати захворювання.

2. Мікроорганізми можуть жити в будь якій частині біосфери, включаючи грунт, гарячі джерела, дно океану, високо в атмосфері і глибоко всередині скелі.

3. Мікроби повинні використовувати як в біотехнології, так і в сучасних технологіях, заснованих на генній інженерії.

4. Однак існує багато патогенних мікробів, які зможуть зашкодити здоров’ю та навіть призвести до смерті рослини, тварини чи людини.

5. Саме патогенні бактерії змогли викликати інфекції, такі як правець, черевний тиф, дифтерію, холеру і туберкульоз.

6. Тільки в 1675 році Антоні ван Левенгук зміг відкрити мікроорганізми, завдяки мікроскопу власної конструкції.

7. Розуміння бактеріального метаболізму і генетики дозволяють використовувати біотехнології для виробництва терапевтичних білків, таких як інсулін.

8.За оптимальних умов, бактерії повинні рости і ділитися надзвичайно швидко, а бактеріальна популяція повинна подвоюватись кожні 9,8 хвилин.

Завдання для самостійної роботи студентів (СРС)

I. Перекладіть словосполучення: атмосферний вільний кисень процес поділу бактерій умови навколишнього середовища паличко- та комоподібні бактерії викликати інфекцію для того, щоб виділити хімічні речовини життя та ріст мікроогранізмів основна причина смерті людини збільшувати(ся) у розмірі до певної межі отримати поживні речовини   II. Дайте відповідь на питання: What groups may all the existing microorganisms be divided into? What conditions are favourable for aerobic microorganisms? When do bacteria grow and multiply extremely rapidly? What bacteria are a major cause of human death and diseases? What science studies bacteria?   III. Розкрийте поняття: мікроорганізми бактеріологія
Alexander Fleming

Exercise 1. Topic vocabulary:

contaminate, v [kən‚tæmə'neɪt] забруднювати, заражати
discovery, n [dɪs'kʌvərɪ] відкриття
dissolve, v [dɪ’zɒlv] розв'язувати, розчиняти
extract, v [ɪk'strækt] виділяти
harmful, adj [’hɑ:rmfəl] шкідливий, небезпечний
mould, n [məuld] пліснява, цвіль
preoccupy, v [prɪ’ɒkjə‚paɪ] занепокоїти, займати раніше
septic, adj [ˈsɛptɪk] септичний
spoil, v [spɔɪl] зіпсувати, пошкоджувати
wound, n [wu:nd] рана, пошкодження

Exercise 2. Read the following word combinations and translate them:

Wound[wu:nd]: bullet wound, open wound, to stop a wound, mortal wound, gaping wound, lips of the wound, to dress a wound.

Bacteria [bækˈtɪərɪə]: anaerobic bacteria, resistant bacteria, to destroy bacteria, bacteria control, strain of bacterium, anti-bacterial agents,Staphylococcusbacteria, the growth of the bacteria.

Antiseptic [æntɪˈseptɪk]: urinary antiseptic, chemical antiseptics, antiseptic action, antiseptic substance, antiseptic and analgetic effects, antiseptic properties.

Toxic [ˈtɔksɪk]: toxic effect, non-toxic, toxic metal, soil toxicity, toxic activity in laboratory conditions, toxic waste, to be highly toxic, toxic shock syndrome, toxic liver disease, to be toxic or harmful to the living organism

 

Exercise 3. Read the following words, paying attention to the rules of reading:

[əu]– dangerous, numerous, fibrous, nervous, infectious, various, gangrenous, simultaneous.

[ə] – Bacterium, cementum, sputum, fungus, septum, tetanus, serum, column.

[ə] – bacteria, pneumonia, insomnia, edema, anuria, malaria, cholera.

[aɪ] – ( - i . pl. ) – cocci, calculi, fungi, bacilli, glomeruli, streptococci.

 

Exercise 4. Form new words and translate them:

a) the adjectives using the suffixes-ful: model: help – helpful (допомога — корисний) - help, pain, use, rest, harm, beauty, care, wonder, skill.

b) the nouns using the suffixes -th: model: heal – health (гоїтися – здоров'я) - heal,wide, grow, long, warm, deep, true, young, strong, foul.

 

Exercise 5. Translate the following word combinations:

A research work, a bacterial action, a ferment found in many animal tissues and secretions, to contain the bacteria, to look under the microscope, to spoil the experiment, septic wounds, the mould growth, to run experiments, injections of penicillin, to kill harmful bacteria, a clear zone, to study the phenomenon, to stop the growth of pathogenic bacteria, to thank for saving, to be cured, to grow colonies, a method of extracting pure penicillin, many investigations, to be knighted.

 

Exercise 6. Read and translate the text:


1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 |


Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Студалл.Орг (0.044 сек.)