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INDEFINITE TENSES (Passive)
To be + participle II (3 f N), (V + ed)
I. Сравните следующие пары предложений и переведите их на русский язык.
1. The teacher asks the students many questions. The students are asked many questions. 2. He told them an interesting story. He was told an interesting story. 3. She visited by her friends. She was visited by her friends. 4. The rector will receive you at 3 o’clock. You will be received on Wednesday. 5. They will show us a new film tomorrow. They will be shown a new film tomorrow. 6. He asked to show the first-year students the new equipment of the laboratory. 7. I told them to buy tickets. I was told to buy tickets. 8. I often invite my friend to the theatre. I am often invited to the theatre. 9. he helps me with my work. I am often helped with my work. 10. I often see him in the library. He is often seen there.
II. Измените следующие предложения, сделав центром высказывания объект действия. Переведите на русский язык предложения.
1. Our scientists solve many important problems. 2. Yesterday Petrov translated a difficult technical text. 3. The teacher will correct his translation next week. 4. The students of technical institute study drawing, strength of materials, elements of machines and mechanic. 5. He looked for his English text-book everywhere. 6. They solved all the problems in time. Our institute trains competent specialists for the national economy. 8.Pump is delivering fuel to the injector. 9. The teacher told the student to draw a cylinder of the engine with piston at the top of its stroke. 10. They examined the motor every day. 11. They apply new methods in their work.
III. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на глаголы, требующие после себя определённых предлогов:
to look at – смотреть на
to look for – искать
to look after – присматривать
to look through – просматривать
to work at – работать над
to wait for – ждать кого-то
to refer to – ссылаться на
to rely on/upon – полагаться на
to experiment on/upon – экспериментировать над
to speak about(of) – говорить о
to pay attention to – обращать внимание на
to listen to – слушать
to take care – заботиться
to send – посылать
to send for – посылать за
to act on/upon – влиять на
to deal with – иметь дело с
Помните, что подлежащее при сказуемом в страдательном залоге может переводиться на русский язык существительным (местоимением) во всех падежах кроме родительного.
1. He was listened to with great pleasure. 2. The documents were sent for a week ago. 3. This poet is much spoken about. 4. The child was looked for everywhere. 5. Her children will be taken care of. 6. You are always waited for. 7. The picture was attentively looked at. 8. This book is often referred to. 9. This plan was carefully worked at. 10. The secretary was sent for.
1. The modern scientific forecasts of weather can be fully relied upon. 2. Friction in an important force that must be dealt with in nearly all motion. 3. A gas may be looked upon as the vapour of a liquid with a very low boiling point or very great vapour pressure. 4. At technical institute drawing is paid great attention to. 5. All the possibilities of the new machine were spoken of at the last sitting of the design circle.
IV. Определите функции слов с окончанием “ed”. Переведите на русский язык предложения. Помните, что слова с окончанием “ed” могут быть глаголом в Past Indefinite или причастием II. Причастие в функции определения переводится страдательным причастием, оканчивающимся на -мый, -ный, -тый.
Пример: 1. Last year our factory produced a great number of Spare parts.
(В прошлом году наш завод выпустил много запасных
2. We received the required equipment.
(Мы получили требуемое оборудование).
1. Iron and steel are both produced from iron ore. 2. The steel produced by our plant is of high quality. 3. For very low – temperature work gases are the only substances that can be used. 4. The 2 very important types of thermometers used in industrial processes are electrical in character. 5. We used both types of thermometers in our work. 6. Our laboratory will be provided with all necessary instruments. 7. The instruments provided by our plant are very accurate. 8. The first sputnik was created in Russia. 9. The atomic space station created provides important information on space. 10. Soviet scientists and engineers created the first spaceship in the world.
V. Определите время и залог сказуемого и переведите на русский язык.
1. The subject of electricity will be discussed at the next lesson. 2. The air is warmed by the sun, not directly by sun’s rays but due to the fact that the earth absorbs the radiation from the sun, convert this into heat and then transfers this heat to the air by convection. 3. The positive particle in the nucleus was given the name of the proton. 4. They use all the latest scientific achievements in their work. 5. The research of the properties of these metals is done at one of the Moscow institutes. 6. All these metal parts are cut automatically. 7. In future machine-tools will be made faster and more precise. 8. We were shown a new alloy which will be used in modern technology. 9. A special group worked at the system of television control.
VI. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на время и залог сказуемого.
1. Usually the students are examined in the room 41. 2. At the institute the students are taught many different subjects. 3. The academic year is divided into 2 terms. 4. The children of Sparta were given a military education. 5. In Athens special attention was paid to reading, writing and literature. 6. The boy was told to be back at home at 6 o’clock. 7. The electric lamp was invented by Yablochkov. 8. The telegram will be sent tomorrow. 9. This building will be completed very soon. 10. A new library will be opened in our district next week. 11. Children under 16 are not allowed to see the film. 12. I am often helped by my younger brother. 13. The newspapers are usually brought in the morning. 14. The young workers are trained at the factory how to use the new equipment.
ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ CONTINUOUS (Active. Passive)
Времена группы Continuous выражают продолжающееся, незаконченное действие, происходящее в какой-либо момент в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени.
I. Употребите времена Continuous или Indefinite.
1. She usually (to read) English books in the evening. 2. He (to help) his brother in mathematics when I rang him yesterday. 3. We (to listen) to the classic music on Friday evening next week. 4. They (to have) seminars twice a week. 5. Don’t make such noise, I (to prepare) for my report. 6. Yesterday when I came home my brother (to read) a book. 7. It (to take) her half an hour to get to the institute by tram. 8. When the professor (to enter) the class-room, he (to greet) the students. 9. What you (to do) when I came in. – I (to read) an article on internal combustion engines. 10. At the corner of the street we (to see) a car. The driver (to examine) its engine. 11. Where you (to go) when I met you. I (to go) to Dzerzhinski Square. I (to intend) to visit the exhibition in the Politechnical Museum.
II. Определите функцию Participle I в предложении и переведите их на русский язык.
1. The electric current passing through a wire will heat that wire. 2. Waiting for him I looked through the magazines lying on the table. 3. They remained at home refusing to go anywhere that day. 4. Going into chemical reactions elements entirely change their properties. 5. When moving cold masses of air chill warmer air masses. 6. The mechanic examining the new machine-tool works at this plant. 7. Heating a substance we cause a more rapid motion of its molecules. 8. The changes affecting the composition of materials are chemical changes. 9. Being a good conductor, copper is often used in industry. 10. A molecule is a compound consisting of 2 or more atoms. 11. Our scientists are preparing programs for automatic devices.
III. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на время и залог сказуемого.
1. a) The staff of the laboratory is finishing the work on the apparatus. b) The work on the apparatus is being finished. c) The work on the apparatus is almost finished.
2. a) The plans are usually discussed at the beginning of the year. b) They are discussing the plans of the next year. c) The plans of the next year are being discussed at the meeting.
3. a) While he was having dinner his car was being cleaned. b) Do you know who was cleaning the car?
4. a) The problems were worked at. b) The group of experts were working at the problems. c) These important problems are being worked at in numerous research institutes.
IV. Измените следующие предложения, сделав центром высказывания объект действия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Образец: We are translating the articles from English into Russian. – The articles
are being translated from English into Russian.
1. The students are speaking about the Universities of Great Britain. 2. They were watching the TV programmes. 3. The teacher is dictating the task for the test. 4. He was explaining his point of view for some minutes. 5. The Ukrainian scientists are successfully solving important problems of mathematics, chemistry, electronics, medicine and biology. 6. They are introducing automation in building work. 7. They processed the necessary data with the help of a computer. 8. The Soviet State is doing everything necessary to improve the material and communal condition of the students. 9. The monitor of the group is making a report new. 10. Our cosmonauts are making many important observations.
V. Переведите на русский язык следующие предложения.
1.When I came to Baku in 1962 the first Metro line was being built. 2. When questions are being discussed now? 3. Professor N. was being listened to with great attention. 4. Who is being examined now? 5. The experiments were still being made in some laboratories when the new term began. 6. All the way home he was being followed by astrange-looking man. 7. Numerous questions are being considered by the commission. 8. He was being told the news when I entered the room. 9. New metro lines are being built in Moscow in different parts of the city. 10. On Thursdays the foreign students were being shown lecture halls and laboratories of the Moscow University. 11. Modern buildings are always looked at with interest. 12. The experiment was very interesting, it was being watched with great attention. 13. More and more is being learnt about outer space and the conditions for life there. 14. The designers will be making different improvements in the construction of space ships. 15. Within several years nuclear power plants will be generating a great amount of electrical power. 16. The day will be come when space ships will be flying to the planets in the solar system and their satellites. 17. Numerous new instruments are being used in many branches of science and technology.
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