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Глагол t o b e
Функции Примеры
1. Смысловой глагол He is in Moscow (Он находится в Москве) We were at the lecture (Мы были на лекции)
2. Вспомогательный глагол (Continuous Tenses Passive Voice) I am going to the Institute. (Я иду в институт) He was asked difficult questions. (Ему задавали трудные вопросы)
  3. Глагол-связка They are students (Они - студенты) The story is very interesting (Рассказ очень интересный)
  4.Модальный глагол (эквивалент. гл. “must”) She is to make a report (Она должна сделать доклад) The train was to come at 5 o’clock (Поезд должен был прибыть в 5 часов)





I. Определите функции глагола to be в следующих предложениях.


1. In our scientific age great progress is being made in the study of outer space. 2. Automation is to be introduced into all production processes which is of decisive importance in the rapid economic development of our country. 3. Electronics is becoming very important to engineers working in various branches of industry. 4. Our institute is near the underground station. 5. He is to make his report at the next seminar. 6. Zink is the cheapest metal with a strong tendency to lose electrons. 7. The form of energy most required by us is mechanical energy. 8. Electrical engineering is a branch of engineering, the progress of which has become most manifest during the last century. 9. We are to combine these relations to obtain the general equation of motion of a rigid body.

ВРЕМЕНА ГРУППЫ Perfect (Active, Passive)

to have + Participle II (3FV, Ved) to have + been + Participle II (3fV, Ved)
He has received a letter. The letter has been received
He had received a letter by the evening yesterday. The letter had been received by the evening yesterday.
He will have received a letter by the evening tomorrow The letter will have been received by the evening tomorrow.


Времена группы Perfect выражают совершённое действие, законченное к какому-то моменту в настоящем, прошедшем и будущем времени.





I. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на употребление времён.

1. He has already returned to Moskow.

(Он уже вернулся в Москву.)

2. He returned to Moscow 5 years ago.

(Он вернулся в Москву 5 лет назад.)


1. He came by car yesterday. He has just come by car. 2. They didn’t go to Kiev last year. They have never been to Kiev. 3. I knew him in 1970. I have known him since 1970. 4. They were learning the new English words when I came into the room. They had already learnt the new words when I came into the room. 5. I shall finish the work tomorrow. We shall have finished the work tomorrow by 5 o’clock. 6. The experiment was completed 2 days ago. The experiment had been completed by the end of the month. 7. Her plans are changed every day. Her plans have been already changed. 8. They haven’t received any good results. They didn’t receive any good results when they worked with this type of equipment. 9. The temperature has been maintained at the point of 20 degrees since the beginning of the experiment. During the experiment the temperature was maintained at the point of 20. 10. I have attended the lecture on history since May. I attended the lecture on history in May.


II. Определите сказуемое, его время и залог. Переведите предложение на русский язык.


1. Each new launching of artificial satellites has been connected with the solution of fundamentally new technical and scientific problems.2. Mankind’s dream about cosmic flights has come true.3. The man has made humanity’s age-old dream of flying into outer space a reality.4. By the end of the year all experiments necessary for the completion of our research will have been made.5. Before the first human astronaut went into space, much work had been done with the sputniks, carrying dogs and small animals.6. Careful studies of the transformations of one form of energy into another have been carried out.7. Before 1932 two fundamental particles had become well established as a result of numerous experiments.8. After he had come to London in 1902 the first thing he did was to learn English.9. They had never heard an Englishman speak English before they came to London.


1.When they had come to London, they found that they could not understand a word and nobody understood them.2. The visible side of the moon has been studied ever since Galileo invented the telescope.3. The future of astronautics will be a logical continuation of what has already been achieved.4. He has been offered a very interesting job at that institute.5. The positive results hadn’t been obtained until a more powerful apparature was installed.6. They have already determined the main properties of the substance.7. The first attempts to obtain synthetic materials had been made by scientist by the end of the 19 century. 8. By the time you get into contact with us we shall have done the greater part of work.

III. Определить время и залог сказуемого. Перевести предложение на русский язык.

1. A scientifically based plan for the national economy coordinates the development of all branches on a national scale.2. These districts will become a major centre of gas extraction.3. In 1979 the census recorded a population of more than a million in eighteen cities.4. The employment bureau has a lot of information as to what specialists are needed at enterprises in the district.5. If, for example, a woman wants to work park time, she will be offered such a job.6. When the engine had been examined the driver started the car.7. The flexible line that has been recently developed at our plant has greatly improved the production process.8. They have already applied new methods in their research.9. Radio engineering, electronics and television have already found great application in industry, transport and medicine.10. Our shop is producing come new chemical apparatus.11. In present-day organic chemistry new compounds are being synthesized daily.12. This invention was spoken of at the meeting of our scientific society.13. Modern buildings are always looked at with interest.14. The experiment was very interesting, it was being watched with great attention.15. Complex calculations were followed by experiments.


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