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НЕЗАВИСИМЫЙ ПРИЧАСТНЫЙ ОБОРОТ
Помните, что независимый причастный оборот всегда отделен запятой.
а) в начале предложения этот оборот переводится с союзами «когда», «после того, как», «поскольку», «так, как».
b) в конце предложения этот оборот переводится с союзами «а», «и», «причем», «но»; а также самостоятельным бессоюзным предложением.
XIV. Определите независимый причастный оборот. Переведите предложения.
1. Some new devices having been obtained, the researches could make more complex experiments. 2. It being late, we decided to stop working. 3. The part cooling during this process, the worker has to reheat it. 4. The operator being highly and experienced, the parts made by him have usually no defects. 5. The conditions of work here being very hard, workers organized a meeting. 6. The electrons moving through a wire, electrical energy is generated. 7. The current flow having been changed, the direction of the magnetic lines of force changed as well. 8. The first laser having been built about 30 years ago, scientists developed several types of lasers.
1. The installation was automized last year, its capacity rising by 25 per cent. 2. Water exists as ice at low temperatures, with the temperature depending upon pressure. 3. Radioisotopes are composed of atoms of different mass, all carrying the same charge and hence chemically identical. 4. The electrons move with various velocities, their velocity depending on the temperature and nature of the material. 5. New methods of work became possible, technique having reached a high stage of development. 6. At present nearly 80 states export cotton, the USA being the biggest exporter.
XV. Переведите предложения с независимым причастным оборотом с предлогом with. Помните, что такие предложения переводятся точно так, как и независимые причастные обороты без союзов.
With the letter being written, I went to post it.
Так как письмо было написано, я пошел отправить его.
1. With the article being ready, I shall show it to you. 2. I had to send for the doctor, with my father being badly ill. 3. With the temperature falling rapidly, we were not able to carry on scientific investigations. 4. We went on making further experiments, with the difficulties having been overcome. 5. With a series of lunar stations having been launched, the astronomers have got a clear idea of the Moon’s surface.
XVI. Переведите предложения на русский язык с независимым и зависимым причастными оборотами.
1. The ship moving in space, the radio devices functioned properly. 2. Having reached Antarctica scientists began their research work immediately. 3. Sound travels at a speed of 1,090 feet per second in air at 0o C, the speed increasing about 2 feet per second for each degree rise in temperature. 4. Having developed new devices, they were able to measure the velocity of these particles. 5. Sound waves being sent into a metal object, any flaw in it will reflect some of the waves back. 6. No satisfactory results having been obtained, we began making a new series of experiments. 7. Many technical and scientific problems having been solved, the first spaceflight could be realized. 8. Having passed through parallel wires, the electron streams join each other. 9. Automation having been firmly established in space research, our spaceships employs automatic instruments in the study of cosmic space. 10. Being placed in liquid, a body will sink until it has displaced its own weight of the liquid.
XVII. Определите функций неличных форм глагола и переведите на русский язык.
1.Magneto hydrodynamic energy converters being able to produce huge amounts of electric energy makes them an important proposition for the direct generation of electricity. When and if perfected, they may very well eliminate present indirect sources of electrical power, their efficiencies approaching 60 per cent as compared to 40 per cent for conventional power plants. 2. Magneto hydrodynamic energy converters being able to produce huge amounts of electric energy with greater efficiencies, we can assure that they will find wide application. 3. By using ultrasonic waves we can shake, break, weld, boil, cut, grind and clean. 4. The future is expected to bring a great many new applications for ultrasonics. 5. If we want different molecules to be mixed they must be shaken by ultrasonics together and they are soon thoroughly mixed, this method being called emulsification. 6. It having many advantages over methods makes ultrasonics indispensable for modern industry. 7. Bats being provided with an ultrasonic “radar” system enables them to fly in the dark between thin wires only a few inches apart without ever touching them. 8. Increasing the velocity of molecules can be accomplished by raising the temperature. 9. The field of application of electronics having considerably grown, we can perform now many industrial processes with unheard-of accuracy. 10. Because of its being applied in different branches of modern industry electronics is growing in importance from day to day. 11. When doing many various kinds of work use is made of electronic tools nowadays. 12. The distance between the molecules to be traveled by a sound wave is shorter for solids than for air. 13. Many new applications of ultrasonic waves are likely to appear in the future. 14. We know electric current to be surrounded by a magnetic field. 15. We have seen the existence of life on the earth depend upon the continuous receipt of enormous quantities of energy from sun. 16. We have learned air to be composed of many gases.
ОБОРОТ there + be
Помните, что в сочетаниях с there употребляются и некоторые другие глаголы: to stand, to exist, to hang, to live. На русский язык перевод предложений с оборотом there is начинается обычно с обстоятельства места или времени (если оно иметься в предложении).
There is a telegram on the table.
На столе телеграмма.
There exist many sources of energy in nature.
В природе существует много источников энергии.
При отсутствии обстоятельства перевод предложения начинается с самого оборота.
There are different kinds of energy.
Имеются (существуют) различные виды энергии.
І. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные способы перевода оборота.
1.There is a launching site on every cosmodrome. 2. There was a large forest in the locality of the new power station. 3. There are several hundreds of sputniks in orbit at the present time. 4. There were no computing machines before 1940. 5. There were not many qualified specialists in power engineering at the time of the construction of the Volkhow power station. 6. There will be a time when people will travel from one planet to another. 7. There is no progress without hard work. 8. There will be many new atomic stations in different places of our country. 9. There was a rich flora on the Atlantic continent several thousand of years ago. 10. There lies a narrow strait between Asian and America in the Polar Zone. 11. Meteorologist say that there will be no difference in temperature for some days.
1.There is a think mass of air around our planet, but there is no atmosphere around the Moon. 2. There is no life where is no water and air. 3. There are more than a hundred different atoms. 4. There are hundreds of thousands of substances – combinations of elementary forms of matter. 5. There is connection between atmospheric pressure and the weather. 6. There are hundreds of different plastics. 7. There exist many substances in more than one of three possible states. 8. There are molecules of different size and weight. 9. At the present time there are some sputniks which travel round the Sun. 10. There exist more compounds of hydrogen than of any other element.11. There exist many types of measuring instruments. 12. In the corner of the room there stands a bookcase.
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