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Методические указания по английскому языку для студентов II курса института дизайна и искусств, обучающихся по специальности

«История и теория искусств»

Составители:

К. В. Кайшева

В. И. Синицына

 


 

Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

 

Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«САНКТ-ПЕТЕРБУРГСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ТЕХНОЛОГИИ И ДИЗАЙНА»

 

Методические указания по английскому языку

Для студентов II курса института дизайна и искусств,

Обучающихся по специальности «История и теория искусств»

Составители:

К. В. Кайшева

В. И. Синицына

 

Санкт-Петербург

Рекомендовано на

заседании кафедры

31.08.2011 г,

протокол № 1

 

Рецензент О. C. Муранова

 

Тексты предназначены для студентов, обучающихся по специальности «История и теория искусств», комплекс упражнений на основе текстов позволяет развить навыки разговорной речи.

 

Оригинал подготовлен составителями и печатается в авторской редакции.

Подписано в печать 27.09.11. Формат 60x84 1/16

Печать трафаретная. Усл. печ. 4.2.

Тираж 100 экз. Заказ

Отпечатано в типографии СПГУТД

191028, Санкт-Петербург, Моховая, 26

Contents

 

Unit 1. Prehistoric art: the beginning..................................................................... 5

Unit 2. Antique art: Greek and Roman.............................................................. 10

Unit 3. Medieval art: the reign of religion............................................................ 20

Unit 4. The rebirth of art: the Italian Renaissance.............................................. 28

Unit 5.The rebirth of art: the Northern Renaissance........................................... 37

Unit 6.Baroque: the Ornate Age........................................................................... 46

Unit 7. Baroque and Rococo................................................................................ 55

Unit 8. Neoclassicism............................................................................................. 63

References.............................................................................................................. 68



 

 


Unit 1

PREHISTORIC ART: THE BEGINNING

Before you read

 


1. Discuss the following questions:

· What is art?

· What art forms do you know?

· When was art born?

· Do you know any examples of prehistoric art?

· How would you describe the distinctive features of prehistoric art?

 

Comment on the quotations. Do you agree with them? Explain your answers.

«Art is born of the observation and investigation of nature» Cicero
«Art is making something out of nothing and selling it» Frank Zappa
«Art is the desire of a man to express himself, to record the reactions of his personality to the world he lives in» Amy Lowell

 

 


Read and translate the text.

The Birth of Art

Art was born around 25,000 years ago with the birth of our human ancestor Cro-Magnon man. With greater intelligence came imagination and the ability to create images in both painting and sculpture. For thousands of years three art forms – painting, sculpture, and architecture – embodied the ambitions, dreams, and values of their cultures. The history of art is not a story of progress from primitive to complex but a story of the varied forms the imagination has taken in painting and sculpture.

The oldest surviving art objects are sculptures made from bone, ivory, stone, or antlers. These were engraved (by incising an outlined figure with a sharp tool), carved in deep relief, or fully rounded three-dimensional sculptures.

The first «paintings» were probably made in caves approximately 15,000 years ago. These pictures of bison, deer, horses, cattle, mammoths symbolized good luck in hunting. Cave artists used charcoal to outline irregularities in the walls of caves that suggested forms from nature. Bulges in the rock implied hulk, and tonal shading with earth–tone pigments lent contour and perspective. Drawings were often superimposed randomly, perhaps because new images were necessary before each hunt. Almost all images represent animal figures in two-dimensional profile and seem to float in space, without background surroundings.

Mesopotamiaand its capital city Babylonare called «the navel of the world». This premier city was the cradle of ancient art and architecture, as well as the site of both the Hanging Gardens and Tower of Babel. Besides architecture, the predominant art form of Mesopotamia was bas-relief sculpture. Combined with wedge-shaped cuneiform writing, scene after scene of these wall carvings scrupulously detail military exploits. «The Dying Lioness» portrays a wounded beast, paralyzed by arrows. The figure's flattened ears and straining muscles convey her death throes with convincing realism.

Egypt is famous for the art of immortality. Considering Egyptian society's obsession with immortality, it's not surprising that Egyptian art remained unchanged for 3,000 years. Their overriding concern was assuring a comfortable after-life for their rulers, who were considered gods. Colossal architecture and Egyptian art existed to surround the pharaoh's spirit with eternal glory. In the pursuit of permanence, the Egyptians established the essentials of a major civilization: literature, medical science, and higher mathematics. Much of what we know about ancient Egypt comes from the surviving tombs. Wall paintings and hieroglyphics were a form of instant replay, life and daily activities in minute detail. Sculpture and paintings followed a rigid formula for representing the human figure. In acres of stone carvings and drawings, the human form is depicted with a front view of the eye and shoulders and profile view of head, arms, and legs. In wall paintings, the surface is divided into horizontal bands separated by lines. The spare, broad-shouldered, narrow-hipped figure wears a headdress and kilt, and stands rigidly, with arms at his side, one leg advanced.

The size of a figure indicated rank, with pharaohs presented as giants towering over pygmy-size servants. Since statues were intended to last eternally, they were made of hard substances like granite and diorite. The pose was always frontal and bisymmetrical, with arms close to the torso. Human anatomy was usually, at best, an approximation. Nefertiti's husband was an artist, who encouraged a temporary loosening of artistic conventions, seen in this more naturalistic representation of his wife.

Glossary


ancestor – someone who is related to you who lived a long time ago.

to embody – to be the best possible example of a particular idea, quality, or principle, especially a good one.

value – amount something is worth.

ivory – a knife with an ivory handle.

antlers – one of the horns on the head of a male deer.

to engrave –a trophy engraved with the winner’s name.

charcoal – a black substance made from burnt wood, used as a fuel, especially for cooking food outside.

bulges – a shape that curves outwards on the surface of something, often made by something under it or inside it.

hulk – the shape of something such as a large ship or building, especially after the inside of it has been destroyed by fire.

randomly – chosen or happening without any particular method, pattern, or purpose.

navel – a small round place in the middle of someone’s stomach where they were separated from their mother at birth.

cradle – a small bed for a baby that you can move gently from side to side.

convey – to communicate ideas or feelings indirectly.

pursuit – the process of trying to achieve something.

rigid –not easily changed.

acre – a unit for measuring the surface area of land, equal to4,047 square metres.

depict – to describe someone or something using words or pictures.

rigidly –not easily changed.

granite – a type of very hard stone, used especially for building.

 

Activities

 


Answer the questions to the text.

· Who was the first human ancestor?

· Is the prehistoric art primitive and modern – complex?

· What techniques and materials were used in the prehistoric era?

· What are the main characteristics of the prehistoric art?

· Did Mesopotamian paintings depict animals?

· Give the examples of realistic features in Mesopotamian and Egypt art.

· Why did Egypt art remain stable for thousands of years?

· What are the main features of Egypt paintings and sculptures?

 

2. Look at the picture of «Venus of Willendorf». Describe it and answer the questions, use the cloud of clues or click on the link to read the Wikipedia article.

Joseph Szombathly
The Museum of Natural History of Vienna

Near Willendorf, a village in Austria
Sometime between 25,000 an 22,000 BC
A statuette
Carved
Limestone
An icon of the prehistoric art

1. What is it?

2. Why is it called the «Venus of Willendorf»?

3. How long has it been in the museum?

4. How did the museum acquire it?

5. What does it represent?

6. What is it made of?

7. How was it made?

8. Where is it displayed?

9. Who discovered it?

10. Why is it important?

11. When does it date to?


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