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Government and People

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Paris is divided into 20 arrondissements (districts or boroughs), each of which has a local council and a mayor, but most of the power is held by the mayor of the City of Paris who is chosen by the city's council. Paris and its suburbs together make up the eight departments of the Ile-de-France administrative region, which is governed by an elected assembly, chairman, and supervisor and overseen by a prefect appointed by the state.

Immigrants to France now constitute nearly 20% of Paris's population. The majority of these are Algerian, Moroccan, and Tunisian. Large groups of Indochinese have also immigrated to Paris. About 75% of all Parisians live in the suburbs due to high costs and a high population density in the city. New towns have been built, consolidating suburban areas, and a great deal of manufacturing and other industry takes place in the suburbs.

RELIGION

Religion - a system of thought, feeling, and action that is shared by a group and that gives the members an object of devotion; a code of behavior by which individuals may judge the personal and social consequences of their actions; and a frame of reference by which individuals may relate to their group and their universe. Usually, religion concerns itself with that which transcends the known, the natural, or the expected; it is an acknowledgment of the extraordinary, the mysterious, and the supernatural. The religious consciousness generally recognizes a transcendent, sacred order and elaborates a technique to deal with the inexplicable or unpredictable elements of human experience in the world or beyond it.

The evolution of religion cannot be precisely determined owing to the lack of clearly distinguishable stages, but anthropological and historical studies of isolated cultures in various periods of development have suggested a typology but not a chronology. One type is found among some Australian aborigines who practice magic and fetishism but consider the powers therein to be not supernatural but an aspect of the natural world. Inability or refusal to divide real from preternatural and acceptance of the idea that inanimate objects may work human good or evil are sometimes said to mark a prereligious phase of thought. This is sometimes labeled naturism or animatism. It is characterized by a belief in a life force that itself has no definite characterization.

A second type of religion, represented by many Oceanic and African tribal beliefs, includes momentary deities (a tree suddenly falling on or in front of a person is malignant, although it was not considered "possessed" before or after the incident) and special deities (a particular tree is inhabited by a malignant spirit, or the spirits of dead villagers inhabit a certain grove or particular animals). In this category one must distinguish between natural and supernatural forces. This development is related to the emergence of objects of devotion, to rituals of propitiation, to priests and shamans , and to an individual sense of group participation in which the individual or the group is protected by, or against, supernatural beings and is expected to act singly or collectively in specific ways when in the presence of these forces.

In a third class of religion—usually heavily interlaced with fetishism—magic, momentary and special deities, nature gods, and deities personifying natural functions (such as the Egyptian solar god Ra, the Babylonian goddess of fertility Ishtar, the Greek sea-god Poseidon, and the Hindu goddess of death and destruction Kali) emerge and are incorporated into a system of mythology and ritual. Sometimes they take on distinctively human characteristics.

Beyond these more elementary forms of religious expression there are what are commonly called the "higher religions." Theologians and philosophers of religion agree that these religions embody a principle of transcendence, i.e., a concept, sometimes a godhead, that involves humans in an experience beyond their immediate personal and social needs, an experience known as "the sacred" or "the holy."

In the comparative study of these religions certain classifications are used. The most frequent are polytheism (as in popular Hinduism and ancient Greek religion), in which there are many gods; dualism (as in Zoroastrianism and certain Gnostic sects), which conceives of equally powerful deities of good and of evil; monotheism (as in Christianity, Judaism , and Islam), in which there is a single god; supratheism (as in Hindu Vedanta and certain Buddhist sects), in which the devotee participates in the religion through a mystical union with the godhead; and pantheism, in which the universe is identified with God.

Another frequently used classification is based on the origins of the body of knowledge held by a certain religion: some religions are revealed, as in Judaism (where God revealed the Commandments to Moses), Christianity (where Christ, the Son of God, revealed the Word of the Father), and Islam (where the angel Gabriel revealed God's will to Muhammad). Some religions are nonrevealed, or "natural," the result of human inquiry alone. Included among these and sometimes called philosophies of eternity are Buddhist sects (where Buddha is recognized not as a god but as an enlightened leader), Brahmanism, and Taoism and other Chinese metaphysical doctrines.


SCIENCE

Science is a source of progress. It develops the world we live in. Our century is an epoch of great discoveries in science and engineering. It is epoch of scientific and technological revolution, when new ideas are being born and new discoveries, inventions are being made at an ever increasing rate. Today science has become the most important factor in the development of national economy in the whole world. Scientific progress serves the interests of society, helps to increase the well - being of people and develops public education. Computer technology plays the most important role in the progress of science. The ability of computers to solve many mathematical problems more effective than man does, has given rise to new trends in mathematics. Computer science is a new field of study and research. In recent years scientists of the world have achieved great success in the development of physics, chemistry, biology, and such astonishing, interesting science as psychology. But science may be turned both for peace and military purpose. It can take good forms and evil forms. With the help of scientific inventions politicians make weapons of mass destruction. But on the other hand researches help us in our life: at home, at work, at school and make the level of the country development higher. That's why there are a lot's of facts telling about a great amount of well-known scientists who had burned their works when they've understood the consequences of their inventions. There are a lot of world-known scientists but one of the greatest names in history of man's work in physics. James Clerk Maxwell was born Edinburgh, Scotland, on November 13, 1831.After school he entered the University of native city, attended the University of Cambridge which he graduated in 1854. For two years he lectured, made experiments in optics at Trinity College, studied much himself. In 1856 he became a professor of natural philosophy and in 1860 - a professor of physics and astronomy at kings College in London. In London he lived for five years. There he saw Faraday. In 1871 Maxwell became a professor of experimental physics at Cambridge. At that time students couldn't even have such subjects like electricity and magnetism, as there was no laboratory for the study of these subjects. Maxwell organized such a laboratory, which made Cambridge world-known. This was a fruitful period of Maxwell's life. He studied the problems of electromagnetism, molecular physics, optics, and mechanics. Maxwell wrote his first scientific work when he was 15. Science that time he wrote a great number of works which were the results of his experiments and calculations. His most outstanding investigations are in the field of kinetic theory of gases and electricity. Maxwell is the founder of the electromagnetic field (side by side with Faraday). In 1873 he published his work on electricity and magnetism. During these years he also wrote his classic "Matter and Motion", "Atoms", "Attraction", "Faraday". Maxwell died in 1879.


SHOPPING

When we want to buy something we go to a shop. There are many kinds of shops in every town or city, buy most of them have a food supermarket, a department store, men’s and women’s clothing stores, grocery, a bakery and a butchery. I like to do my shopping at big department stores and supermarkets. They sell various goods under one roof and this is very convenient. A department store, for example, true to its name, is composed of many departments: ready-made clothes, fabrics, shoes, sports goods, toys, china and glass, electric appliances, cosmetics, linen, curtains, cameras, records, etc. You can buy everything you like there. There are also escalators in big stores which take customers to different floors. The things for sale are on the counters so, that they can be easily seen. In the women'’ clothing department you can find dresses, costumes, blouses, skirts, coats, beautiful underwear and many other things. In the men’s clothing department you can choose suits, trousers, overcoats, ties, etc. In the knitwear department one can buy sweaters, cardigans, short-sleeved and long-sleeved pullovers, woolen jackets. In the perfumery they sell face cream and powder, lipstick, lotions and shampoos. In a food supermarket we can also buy many different things at once: sausages, fish, sugar, macaroni, flour, cereals and tea. At the butcher’s there is a wide choice of meat and poultry. At the bakery you buy brown and white bread, rolls, and biscuits. Another shop we frequently go to is the greengrocery which is stocked by cabbage, potatoes, onions, cucumbers, carrots, beetroots, green peas and what not. Everything is sold here ready-weighed and packed. If you call round at a dairy you can buy milk, cream, cheese, butter and many other products. The methods of shopping may vary. It may be a self-service shop where the customer goes from counter to counter selecting and putting into a basket what he wishes to buy. Then he takes the basket to the check-out counter, where the prices of the purchases are added up. If it’s not a self-service shop, and most small shops are not, the shop-assistant helps the customer in finding what he wants. You pay money to the cashier and he gives you back the change. But there is a very good service called Postal Market. It really helps you to save you time and get goods of high quality. You have just to look through a catalogue, choose the things you like, order them and wait a little to get them.

I would like to tell you about shopping in the United Kingdom.

Marks & Spencer is Britain's favorite store. Tourists love it too. It attracts a great variety of customers from house wives to millionaires. Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime-minister are just a few of its famous customers. Once it made a profit of 529 million pounds per a year. This is more than 10 million a week.

It all started 105 years ago when a young Polish immigrant Michael Marks had a stall in Leeds market. He didn't have many things to sell: some cotton, a little wool, lots of buttons and a few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the now famous notice: "Don't ask how much - it's a penny." Ten years later he met Tom Spencer and together they started Penny stalls in many towns in the North of England. Today there are 564 branches of Marks & Spencer all over the world: in America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium and Hungary.

The store bases its business on 3 principals: good value, good quality and good service. Also, it changes with the times; once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it is food, furniture and flowers as well. Top fashion designers advice on styles of clothes. Perhaps, the most important key to its success is its happy well-trained staff. Conditions of work are excellent. There are company doctors, dentists, hairdressers, etc. And all the staff can have lunch for fewer than 40 pence.

Surprisingly tastes in food and clothes are international. What sells well in Paris, sells just as well in Newcastle and Moscow. Their best selling clothes are: for women - jumpers and knickers (M & S is famous for its knickers); for men - shirts, socks, pajamas, dressing gowns and suits; for children - underwear and socks. Best sellers in food include: fresh chickens, vegetables and sandwiches, “Chicken Kiev” is internationally the most popular convince food. Shopping in Britain is also famous for its Fresh food. Fresh food is a chain of food stores and very successful supermarkets which has grown tremendously in the twenty years since it was founded, and now it has branches in the High Streets of all the towns of any size in Britain. In the beginning the stores sold only foodstuffs, but in recent years they have diversified enormously and now sell clothes, books, records, electrical and domestic equipment. The success of the chain has been due to an enterprising management and to attractive layout and display in the stores. It has been discovered that impulse buying accounts for almost 35 per cent of the total turnover of the stores. The stores are organized completely for self-service and customers are encouraged to wander around the spaciously laid out stands. Special free gifts and reduced prices are used to tempt customers into the stores and they can't stand the temptation.

THE BEATLES

When people hear the name "The Beatles" most people think of lead singer, John Lennon. However, the role of Paul McCartney is often overlooked. It was McCartney, not Lennon who was the driving force behind the Beatles.

John Lennon and Paul McCartney were in many bands together before the forming of the Beatles. In 1962, along with Ringo Starr and George Harrison, they formed the rock group known as "The Beatles". The group featured a modern rock that was new and popular during the period with John and Paul composing and doing the leads on most of the songs. They were backed by George on rhythm and bass guitar and Ringo on drums. George and Ringo also assisted on backing vocals.

When they first began playing, the main influence inside the band was John Lennon, who had an uncanny ability to compose songs at a moments notice with an inspiration that others missed. He pushed the members of the band during their touring years and was able to achieve the best possible results from the group.

The band began playing in a Music Hall style that is very effective for the audiences but was lacking on their albums. Together with Paul, John began to evolve the band. As the years began to pass, the band was obviously beginning to grow musically. They had moved from simple lyrics like "Love me Do" to harshly aware reflections of life in their home country in "Eleanor Rigby". There were attempts, some more successful than others, to incorporate the other Beatles into the idea stage. George Harrison made this leap successfully with such tracks as "I want to tell you", "TAXMAN", and the psychedelic "Love you to". Ringo was featured in the humorous "Yellow Submarine" As the group matured, their creativity began to rely more on the effects and manipulations that they were able to produce in the studio. The Beatles agreed to end their touring career after an American tour of large halls that they failed to fill. It was around this time, that John Lennon began to search for himself. He began using any means that he thought might help him connect. This era was marked by the Beatles visits to the Maharashi Mahesh Yogi, and the beginning of heavy drug use 3. As Lennon began to use LSD in greater and greater quanti-ties4, the other Beatles began to have more and more influence in the production of the albums. Lennon began to become almost reclusive, and often delayed recording sessions.By the time that they were recording Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in 1967, Lennon would simply propose songs and themes, and McCartney was left to execute the plans and tie together whims. They began to make demands of the crew:Beatles songs were quite simple in the early days, you couldn't play around with them too much. But by 1967 we were building sound pictures and my [George Martin] role had changed-it was to interpret the pictures and determine how best to get them down on tape. Paul was fine-he could express what he wanted, the sounds he wa nted to have. But John...would make whooshing sounds and try to describe what only he could only hear in his head, saying he wanted a song to 'sound like an orange'.5 As soon as the Sgt. Pepper album was underway, Paul McCartney came up with the idea of actually creating a band and preforming the songs as that band. They took the Idea from there and Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Heart's Club Band came into existence, never to see the outside of studio 2 at Abbey Road. They spent nearly a year recording various tracks for the album and John's state of mind was steadily declining.

The writing of the material on The Beatles8 seemed more balanced as Lennon began writing more cogent songs, and collaborating on a song-by-song basis with McCartney. Their songs varied from a slow ballad in McCartney's "Blackbird" to the bizarre and intriguing "Revolution #9) by Lennon.

Fortunately McCartney prevented the track from proceeding any farther than rehearsal. He ended up suggesting that the song take a more sympathetic note and, eventually, Lennon agreed. During this time, one almost constant presence in the recording studio was Yoko Ono, John's wife. This was against an unspoken code amongst the Beatles not to allow wives and girlfriends into the studio. Yoko had a large effect on John, almost completely altering his style, and inspiring such songs as "I want her (she's so heavy)" and "Revelation #9". Many of the other songs that Yoko and John created were rejected by the group, but her presence changed John's behavior and performance. The Beatles final album together was Let It Be released in 1970. The album was not in any way spectacular and exhibited many of the traits that are associated with the Beatles writing. The title track, "Let It Be" is one of the most famous tracks recorded by the group. The music on the album was a last chance effort to keep the group together, and although the album was well received, it was not what the group had in mind. The Beatles did not make another recording after that date, though there were rumors of the group reforming until the shooting of Lennon in 1980.

One of the most obvious indicators of the heavy hand that was often kept on Lennon is the progress of his band which he formed after the breakup of the Beatles. The Plastic Ono Band was an only moderately successful group that took the popular psychedelic a few steps to far and lost most of its popularity. Lennon attempted to enter theater, but it was quickly obvious that he was no actor. He lived a bizarre and drug ridden life secluded in his apartment with his wife Yoko Ono and his son. Both he and his wife were reported to have serious heroin addictions and were often said to be high in the presence of visitors.

After the breakup, McCartney launched a moderately success-ful solo career. He has released many recordings both in the United States and abroad. His most recent accomplishment was the "Liverpool Oratorio" which is no small feat considering that McCartney never learned to read music. The songwriting styles, the studio records, and the individual careers all show that there was a very large influence in the group, and in the music, by Paul McCartney. Equal to Lennon in the beginning, but surpassing him at the conclusion of the relationship. Two key factors that probably caused this are his affection and infatuation with Yoko Ono, and the heavy use of hallucinogenic drugs. On some occasions, both of those factors may have given Lennon inspiration for his music, but they greatly reduced his control and influence in the band.

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