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ROLE OF WOMEN IN SOCIETY

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The ongoing changes in social, political and economic spheres of the country entails not only the raise of women’s role in society, in addition they are accompanied by breaking of stereotypes to treat human beings by sex that had been shaping through decades. Free economic relations and democratization of all spheres of life create the basis for eventual equal social rights for any human being regardless of sex, for both men and women.

From a legal point of view, a man and a woman in Russia are equal. However, in practice, there are no real mechanisms of women’s rights fulfillment as well as for their active participation in social life.

Such questions as women and their place in the society, their political and social activity as well as enlightening of those problems in mass media; questions of creation of informational data-base as well as maternity and childhood cannot be effectively solved by governmental bodies, especially in the situation of economic crisis.

That is why it is important today to assist the creation of such mechanisms through the activation of women’s public organizations. And non-governmental charity organizations become a single source for support of such projects.

Housework, chores and raising children are generally considered to belong to a woman's domain. Despite the fact that birthrates in the country have been falling, children are obstacles in the labor market. It is understandable that women decide to defer having children later or do not have children at all. Along with that, there is a lack of knowledge about modern contraception and a correspondingly large number of abortions. The frequency of abortions in Russia is one of the highest in the world.

Women comprise 54 percent of contemporary Russian society. However, the number of women taking part in the country's political, economic and civic life shows that women are restricted in the spheres of politics and government. Women's salaries are on average lower than men's, and women are likewise far more likely to fall victim to violence and unemployment. According to United Nations Gender Organization data, 67 percent of those unemployed in Russia are women.

A lack of state financing in social programs has caused further tightening in the labor market, particularly for women. Female unemployment is rising at a catastrophically high rate. Women have less access to retraining programs than men, while women entrepreneurs are a rarity.

Women's social status is a serious problem. Few female decision-makers can be found in positions of social importance. This strengthens the stereotype of "male superiority" and hinders the creation of true partnerships between men and women.

One of the most important reflections of equity is equal rights in the labor market. Analysis of existing legislation of Russia confirms its prohibition on gender discrimination. However, legislation itself creates only a certain legal environment, certain conditions for equality, but does not ensure their fulfillment.

So, the main goals are protection of women’s rights and elimination of discrimination in society; widening women’s participation in policy decision-making processes on the local, regional and national levels; support for cooperation between women’s organizations on the national and international arenas; widening access to international resources and experience of women’s organizations on an international level.


3.14. RUSSIAN FEDERATION (RUSSIA)

Russia is one of the largest countries in the world. It occupies about one-seventh part of dry land. It is situated in Europe and Asia. Its total area is over 17 million square kilometers.

The country is washed by seas and oceans.

There are different types of climate on the territory of the country. It is very cold in the North even in summer. The central part of the country has mild climate: winters are cold, springs and autumns are warm or cool, summers are hot and warm. In the South the tempera­ture is usually above zero all year round, even in winter. Summer is really hot, the climate is very favorable. The climate of Siberia is continental: summers are hot and dry, winters are very cold.

Some parts of our country are covered with mountains and hills.

There are many rivers in Russia, the longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Yenisei and the Ob in Asia. The deepest lakes are the Baikal and the Ladoga.

The Russian Federation is very rich in mineral resources, such as oil, natural gas, coal, iron, gold and others.

Russia borders on many countries. Among them are Estonia, Latvia, Fin­land, Poland, China, Mongolia, Korea.

Moscow is the capital of our country. It was founded in 1147. It is a wonderful city. There are many sights in Moscow. You can see many museums, art galleries, theatres, churches and monuments in our capital. People of our country are proud of the Moscow Kremlin. There are also many big beautiful cities in Russia.

The population of Russia is about 150 million people. 83 per cent of the population are Russians. 70 per cent of the population live in cities.

3RD COURSE – 2ND TERM

SEASONS

It is very nice in spring. The sky is often blue. The sun shines brightly in the sky. It is warm. It sometimes rains, but the rain is warm and pleasant.

Spring is a hard time for those who live in the country. There is a lot of work to do in the fields. Sometimes people are busy from morning till night. Tractors work in the fields day and night.

Children do not work in the fields. They go to school. They should work hard at the end of the school year.

Summer is as nice as spring. The sun shines brightly. It is warm and sometimes hot. It is warmer and hotter than in spring. The days are longer than in spring. The longest day of the year is the 22nd of June.

In summer children do not go to school. They have summer holidays. They often help fathers and mothers on a farm. There is always a lot of work there in this season.

Summer is a pleasant season. There is a lot of fruit and vegetables at that time. Some people like summer best of all.

After summer autumn comes. The days are shorter than in summer. The weather is not so pleasant as in spring and in summer. It often rains. The rain is cold and not pleasant at all. In September, the first autumn month, the school year begins in our country.

Autumn is the season of fruit and vegetables. It is the hardest time for country people. They should work hard in the fields. Children always help them with fruit and vegetables in autumn. November is the coldest month in autumn. It sometimes rains and it often snows.

Winter is the coldest season in the year. Sometimes the weather is pleasant. It often snows. Some people like when it snows. There is a lot of snow on the ground. The snow is clean and white. The ground is all white with snow. It is pleasant to walk when it is not very cold and it snows. The best holiday in winter is the New Year.

 

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