С. Neutral contracted compounds
an air-conditioned hall
a glass-walled room
to fight against H-bomb
a loud revolver-shot
a high-pitched voice
a heavy topcoat
a car's windshield
a snow-white handkerchief
big A. A. guns
a radio-equipped car
thousands of gold-seekers
a big hunting-knife
a lightish-coloured man
to howl long and wolflike
to go into frantic U-turns
to fix M-Day.
12. Translate the words into English. Compare the structure of the English and Russian words.
1. Старик, рыбак, колокольчик (цветок), свекровь, тесть, зять, невеста, белить.
2. Космодром, космонавт, ракетодром, ракетоноситель.
3. Железная дорога, космический корабль, незабудка, глухонемой, черноволосый, вечнозеленый, голубоглазый.
4. Самоанализ, самовнушение, самообразование, самоучитель, самостоятельный.
13. Read and translate the word-combinations. Pay attention to the stress.
1. To conduct negotiations; the conduct of the government.
2. To record a song; the record of events.
3. To frequent a place; frequent showers.
4. To insult everybody; an insult to everybody.
5. To increase one's vocabulary; to be concerned about increase in crime.
6. To subject somebody to criticism; to be a British subject.
7. To escort the ship; to provide an escort for the ship.
8. To put the rebels in prison; to rebel against a reactionary regime.
9. To present the matter in a false fight; a nice present.
10. To export uranium ore; to increase oil export.
14. Translate the the following reduplicative compounds. Comment on their formation.
Tit for tat, big wig, hodge-podge, helter-skelter, jingle-jangle, down-town, pot-shot, slop-shop, titbit, walkie-talkie, ragtag, topsy-turvy, roll-call, hob-nob, tol-lol, flim-flam, trim-tram, ping-pong, dingle-dangle, knick-knack, hubble-bubble, Humpty-Dumpty, gee-gee, dilly-dally, wishy-washy, flip-flop, hanky-panky, hurly-burly.
15. Classify the neologisms given below according to the word-formation types (affixation, conversion, compounding, clipping, blending, acronymy, back-formation).
16. Define the particular type of word-building process by which the following words were formed.
a find SALT (strategic armament limitation talks)
a greenhorn (a raw, simple, inexperienced person, easily fooled)
a dress coat (a black, long-tailed coat worn by men for formal evening occasions
D-region (the lowest region of the ionosphere extending from 60 to 8О km)
1. Read the following texts and answer the questions:
1. What are the typical semantic relations between the components of a compound?
2. What are the factors most conducive to the productivity of compound words?
3. What is the peculiar feature of preparticles (e.g. over, under) which function as first elements of compounds, e.g. overrate, underestimate?
4. What type of compound words is productive?
5. What does H. Marchand understand by derivation by a zero-morpheme? What reasons does he give for rejecting the terms "conversion" and "functional change"?
6. What is understood by the term "back-derivation"?
7. What types of back-derivation are distinguished by H. Marchand? How are these types connected with derivation by zero-morpheme?
8. What accounts for the limited productivity of back-derivation?
9. How does H. Marchand define "clipping"?
10. What kinds of clippings are distinguished by H. Marchand?
11. What are the main semantic, stylistic and structural peculiarities of clippings?
12. What is the difference between the clipping and the source word?
13. Under what circumstances can clipping be regarded as belonging to word-formation?
14. What is the peculiarity of blending as a means of word-formation?
15. What makes it possible to consider blending irrelevant to word-formation?
16. What structural type of words does blending result in?
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