MEDIALINGUAL, CONSTRICTIVE, ORAL SONANT
/ j /
[ j ] [ j□ ]
The allophones of RP / j / are articulated by the tongue assuming the position for a front half-close to close vowel (depending on the degree of openness of the following sound) and moving away immediately to the position of the following sound; the lips are generally neutral or spread, but may anticipate the lip-rounding of the following sound in such cases as you, yawn, etc.. When it follows a fortis consonant, devoicing takes place; especially when it follows accented
/p, t, k h/, the devoicing is complete.
Unaccented sequences of / tj, dj, sj, zj / coalesced in an earlier state of the language into / ¶, dZ, S, Z /.In some cases, e.g. statue,residue, issue, both forms may now be heard, the pronunciation with /tj, dj, sj, zj / being characteristic of careful speech; on the other hand, the occasionally heard coalesced forms with /S/ in assume and /Z/ in presume occur in rapid, familiar, speech, at unaccented word boundaries, e.g. in not yet, would you, this year, sees you.
A. / t + j / = [ ¶]. B. / d + j / = [ dZ ].
FORELINGUAL(cacuminal), CONSTRICTIVE, ORAL
/ r /
▼ ▼ ▼
[ r ] [ r□ ] [ r1f ]
read true three
The soft palate being raised and the nasal resonator shut off, the tip of the tongue is held in a position near to, but not touching the rear part of the upper teeth ridge; the back rims of the tongue are touching the upper molars; the central part of the tongue is lowered, with a general contraction of the tongue, so that the effect of the tongue position is one of hollowing and slight retroflexion of the tip. The air-stream is thus allowed to escape freely, without friction, over the centre part of the tongue. The lip position is determined largely by that of the following vowel.
A completely devoiced [r□ ]may be heard following accented/p, t, k /,e.g.try, cream, across.A partially devoiced variety of /r□/occurs when /r/ follows an unaccented fortis plosive initial in a syllable and, in rapid speech at syllable or word boundaries, e.g. upright, nitrate, beetroot.
Within RP [r] is frequently replaced by an alveolar tap [r1f]in intervocalic positions, e.g. sorry, very, following / D, T /, e.g. three, with respect, and with some speakers, after other consonants, especially /b, g /, e.g. grow, bright.
When / d / precedes / r /, the allophone of / r/ is fricative, the /d/ closure being post-alveolar and its release slow enough to produce friction, e.g. drive, bedroom, wide rode. /tr/ and /dr/ sequences may be treated phonetically as affricates when close-knit.
dress at rest
dream not ready
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