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Reading for general understanding. Skim read the text. Think of a good title for it. Compare it with other students' titles

 

Nowadays a building's framework is made of reinforced concrete and of structural steel. Concrete is made by mixing together small stones, sand, cement and water. The coarse stones used in the mix give the concrete its strength. The sand is needed to fill the gaps between the stones. The cement, mixed with just enough water to make it into a paste, covers the surface of all solids, and binds the entire mixture into single mass. It is used less water to make mixing concrete denser and stronger. It is a difficulty here. Dry mixing concrete is not so easy to stir as one that is fairly wet and sloppy. When it is really strong concrete, it is mixed with the necessary minimum of water and placed in the forms. After this it is vibrated with electrically vibrated bars. The mixture is tipped or piped into forms (wooden molds) of the shape required.

To make concrete resistant to bending, building engineers rein­force it. It is done by putting bars of steel or miniature steel frameworks into the forms. Hence is named «reinforced concrete». With such a material a variety of constructional shapes can be produced. They can, be "shells" and roofs. For this reinforced concrete is used in thin sheets. Reinforced concrete can be used more effectively if before the external load comes on. For instance, suppose that a reinforced beam could be bent out of the straight by an inch before it developed serious cracks. By pressing it in reverse, building engineers prepare the concrete in advance to withstand the pressures and pulls that the external load causes.

Concrete can be pressed in two ways. In the first method, the concrete is casted around stretched steel wires. After setting concrete, the wires are released and compress the concrete as they contract. Such a method of pressing produces pretension concrete. The other method is called post-tensioning. In the case of a beam the concrete is casted around polythene tubes. After setting concrete, steel cables are drawn through polythene tubes. These cables are anchored at one end of the beam, stretched by jacks and then fixed at the end of the beam.

In constructing of a building, it is possible to cast the floors and walls as well as the framework directly on the spot where they are to stand. Building forms a monolith. Last one is a large artificial stone composed entirely of concrete that has been shaped within wooden molds fitted together perfectly. To cast all the parts in place, a builder has to use many forms. They are removed as soon as the concrete has set. Before beginning another work, concrete must be given plenty of time to harden. In order to save time, a builder may prefer to use a number of standardized concrete units. These can be made. Individual members can be pressed. Also different sections of the building can be prefabricated.



3. Find and translate all the sentences containing the following words:

• concrete

• sand

• reinforced concrete

• pretension concrete

• dry mix

• window frames

• polythene tubes

• vibrated bars

• steel wires

• gaps

• standardized concrete units

4. Read the text again and find the main idea of each paragraph.

5. Reading for general understanding. Read the text again and answer the following questions to the text:

• How many methods of concrete do you know?

• Can you tell anything about the first method of a concrete?

• How is the second method called?

• Can you tell anything about the second method of a concrete?

• What can a builder do to save time?

• How is the concrete made?

• Can the concrete consist of stones, sand', cement and water?

• What is concrete?

• What is "reinforced concrete"?

• What method of concrete is used in Russia?

• What method of concrete is better?

6. Read the following statements and say whether they are true of false. Correct the false statements:

• To make the concrete resistant to bending, engineers rein­force it.

• Concrete is not made by mixing together small stones, sand, cement, and water in rotating drams.

• Concrete can not be pressed in two ways.

• With such material an infinite variety of constructional shapes can be produced, including "shells" and roofs.

• The building then forms a monolith

• Last one is a large artificial stone composed entirely of concrete that has been shaped within wooden molds that fit together perfectly.

• In constructing a building, it is possible to cast the floors and walls as well as the framework directly on the spot where they are to stand.

• They are removed as soon as the concrete has set.

• For this reinforced concrete is used in thin sheets.

• Nowadays a building's framework is made of reinforced concrete and of structural steel.

7. Read the text again and complete the following sentences:

• ... are as likely to be of reinforced concrete as Of structural steel.

• ...is made by mixing together small stones, sand, cement, and water in rotating drums.

• The mixture is tipped or piped...

• The coarse stones used in covers the surface of all so uds and binds the entire mixture .

• ...it is mixed with the necessary minimum of...

• Hence is named...

• ...pretension concrete.

• Before beginning another work, ...

• It is used less water...

• By pressing it in reverse, ...

4. Write the following words in correct order to make sentences and translate them:

• Between, the, needed, to, is, gaps, sand, the, fill, required, shape.

• Can, two, in, concrete, pressed, be, ways.

• Method, called, the, is, ot5her, post-tensioning.

• Concrete, by, stones, is, mixing, cement, drams, made, together, small, in sand, rotating, water.

• The, story, given, concrete, be, of, plenty, each, of, to, time, before, on, harden, the, can, work, next, begin.

5. Make the following sentences negative and put into the
interrogative:

• Concrete is made by mixing together small stones, sand, cement, and water in rotating drams.

• Concrete can be pressed in two ways,

• The other method is called post-tensioning.

• The sand is needed to fill the gaps between the stones.

• Less water is used in mixing the concrete.

• It is used less water to make mixing concrete denser and stronger.

• It is a difficulty here.

• A builder has to use many forms.

• They can be "shells" and roofs.

• Concrete must be given plenty of time to harden.

6. End all the sentences from the text in the Passive Voice. Copy them in your exercise-books.

7. find all the sentences with the modal verbs. Copy them in your exercise-books.

Get talking

1. Make up a plan to the text.

2. Work in pairs. Discuss:

a) a monolith;

b) methods of pressing.

Your talk should last a minute. Your talk should include between 10—20 phrases.

3. Imagine: You are a future skilled engineer. Give your talk about one of the most important building material concrete. It should last about 2 minutes.

4. Give a summary of the paragraph about making the concrete resistant to bending in 5 sentences.

 

ГЕРУНДИЙ (GERUND)

 

Герундий представляет собой неличную глагольную форму» выражающую название действия и обладающую как свойствами существительного, так и свойствами глагола. В русском языке соответствующая форма отсутствует. Функции Герундия во многом

сходны с функциями инфинитива, также сочетая свойства существительного со свойствами глагола. Герундий, однако, имеет больше свойств существительного, чем инфинитив.

Обладая свойствами существительного, герундий может служить в предложении:

1. Подлежащим:

Readingis her favourite occupation. Чтение —ее любимое занятие,

2. Именной частью составного сказуемого:

Her greatest pleasure is read-Ее самое большое удоволь- ing.ствие — это чтение.

3. Частью составного глагольного Сказуемого:

Не finished reading the book. Он кончил читать книгу.

4. Прямым дополнением:

I remember readingit. Я помню, что читал это.

5. Предложным косвенным дополнением:

I am fond of reading.Я люблю чтение (читать).

6. Определенней;

I had the pleasure of readingЯ имел удовольствие прочесть

in the newspaper of your в газете о вашем успехе.

suc­cess.

7. Обстоятельством:

After readingthe letter I put it После того как я прочел

Into the drawer. письмо (прочитав письмо),

я положил его в ящик стола.

 

Как и существительное, герундий может сочетаться с предлогами и определяться притяжательным местоимением или существительным в притяжательном падеже:

I think of goingto the south Я думаю поехать на юг осенью.

in the autumn..

We insisted on their charteringМы настаивали на том, чтобы

A vessel at once. они немедленно зафрахтовали судно.

We objected to the buyer's pay-Мы возражали против того,

ingonly part of the invoice чтобы покупатель заплатил

amount. только часть суммы фактуры

 

Глагольные свойства герундия выражаются в следующем:

 

1. Герундий может иметь прямое дополнение:

I remember reading this bookЯ помню, что читал эту книгу

2. Герундий может определяться наречием:

Не likes reading aloud. Он любит читать вслух.

1. Герундий имеет формы времени и залога:

 

  Active Passive
Indefinite Perfect reading having read being read having been read

Формы герундия совпадают с формами причастий, и их образование происходит по тем же правилам, по которым образуются формы причастий

В русском языке нет форм, соответствующих формам герундия, ввиду чего изолированно, вне предложения, они не могут быть переведены на русский язык.

Indefinite Gerund Active, однако, по своему значению приближается к русскому отглагольному существительному: readingчтение, smokingкурение, waitingожидание.

 


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