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We have mentioned about building materials as one of the components of building. It is high time to tell about them. It is important for an engineer to know that all building materials are used in two basic ways. In the first way they are used to support the loads on a building and in the second way they are used to divide the space in a building. But it is more important to realize that building components are made from building materials. At the same
time the form of a component is related to the way in which it is used. We can see how this works by considering three different types of any construction:
1. The first type of a construction is made of building materials such as a brick, a stone or concrete. They are called blocks. The blocks arc put together to form solid walls. These materials are heavy. They can support the structural loads because they have the property of high compressive strength. At the same time the walls made up of blocks support the building and divide the space in the building.
2. The second type of a construction is made of sheet materials. They are used to form walls which act as both space-dividers and structural support. Timber, concrete and some plastics can be made into large rigid sheets and fixed together to form a building. Such kind of buildings is lighter and faster to construct than a building made up of blocks.
3. The third type of a construction is made of rod materials. They can be used for structural support but not for dividing spaces. There timber, steel and concrete can be formed into rods. Usually rod materials are used as columns because of high tensile and compressive strength. On the other hand, they can be fixed together to form framed structures. The spaces between the rods can be filled with light sheet materials which act as space dividers but do not support structural loads.
2. Read the text again and translate it.
4. Read the following statements and say whether they are true or false. Correct the false statements:
• Rod materials can be used for both dividing space and supporting the building.
• The blocks arc put together to form solid walls.
• Concrete can be used as a block material, a sheet material and a rod material.
• Steel is used for frame construction because it has high tensile strength and low compressive strength.
• There timber, steel and concrete can be formed into rods.
• The sheet materials, which act as space dividers in a frame construction building, can be very light because they do not support structural loads.
• The second type of a construction is made of sheet materials.
5. Copy and complete this table by putting ticks in the boxes to show the functions of the components:
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