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Exercise 2. Vocabulary. Learn by heart the following words
outstanding adj выдающийся
science, scientific n, adj наука, научный
scientist n ученый
unique adj уникальный
according to согласно чему-либо
multi-storeyed adj многоэтажный
to consider v считать, полагать
reinforced concrete железобетон
construction n здание, конструкция
invention n изобретение
achievement n достижение
Exercise 3. Complete the following sentences:
1. N. V. Nikitin was …
2. He graduated from …
3. The scope of his interests embraced …
4.He was a creator of such structures as …
5.Nikitin carried out …
6.He was a recognized authority in the field of …
7.He was the author of …
Exercise 4.Translate into English:
1. Никитин был выдающимся советским ученым.
2. Иванов является признанным авторитетом нашей группы.
3. Это уникальное сооружение было построено по проекту моего друга.
4. Тема моего сквозного проекта «Теоретические вычисления железобетонных конструкций».
5. Никитин является автором семидесяти печатных работ и двадцати изобретений.
1. Discuss the following:
• Can you imagine Building Construction of the first men's houses?
• Do you know anything about the first building materials?
• What is your own point of view about the present state of building construction?
2. Try to guess the meaning of the following words. Use the dictionary if you need:
• a wide variety of climates
• long periods
• history of building
• natural materials
• synthetic materials
• coordinate a work
• construction management
• quality control
3 Match the following words with their Russian equivalents:
• building constructions • строительные материалы
• construction progress • контроль качества
• quality control • развитие крепких материалов
• building materials • строительные конструкции
• synthetic materials • строительный прогресс
• a development of stronger •строительный менеджмент
• construction management •синтетические материалы
1. Read the text and find new words from the text.
2. Reading for general understanding. Skim read the Wet. Think of a good title for it. Compare it with other students' titles.
3. Read and translate the third paragraph from the text:
One of the ancient human activities is building construction. It began with a purely functional need for a controlled environment to moderate the effects of climate. Human shelters were constructed to adapt human beings to a wide variety of climates and become a global species. But temporary structures were used only u few days or months. Over time were they evolved into such a highly refined form as the igloo. After adventing agriculture, people began to stay in one place for long periods. That's why more durable structures began to appear. The first human shelters were very simple. The first shelters were dwellings. But later they were used for other functions, such as food storage and ceremony. Some structures began to have symbolic as well as functional value, marking the beginning of the distinction between architecture and building.
Building construction has its own history, which is marked by a k number of trends. Let's describe some of them. One of these trends is increasing durability of the materials. The first building materials were perishable. We mention leaves, branches and animal hides. Later people began to use more durable natural materials such as clay, stone, timber. Finally, synthetic materials such as bricks, concrete, metals, plastics were used in building. Another trend is quest for buildings of greater height and span. It was possible by the development of stronger building materials and by knowledge of how materials behave and how to exploit them to greater advantage. The third trend involves the degree of control exercised over the interior environment of buildings: increasingly precise regulation of air temperature, light and sound levels, humidity, air speed. All factors that affect human comfort become possible. A modern trend is change in energy of the construction progress, starting with human muscle power and developing toward the powerful machinery.
The present state of building construction is complex. There is a wide range of products and systems which are aimed primarily at groups of building types. We know about a great role of the design process for buildings, It draws upon research establishments that study material properties and performance, code officials. Last ones adopt and enforce safety standards and design professionals who determine user's needs and design a building to meet those needs. It proves that the design process for buildings is highly organized. The construction progress is also highly organized. It includes the manufacturers of building products and systems. On the building site craftsmen assemble themselves. A work of the craftsmen is employed and coordinated by contractors. There are also consultants who specialize in such aspects as construction management, quality control and insurance. We must mention about complexity and measure of mastery of natural forces, which can produce a widely varied built environment to serve the needs of society. In conclusion, modern building construction is a significant part of an industrial culture.
4. Read the text again and find the main idea of each paragraph.
6. Read the text again and complete the following sentences:
• One of these trends is the increasing...
• …building construction.-
• Human shelters were...
• ...is market by a number of trends.
• Over time temporary structures...
7. Read the following statements and say whether they are true or false. Correct the false statements:
• One of the ancient human activities is building construction.
• The present state of building construction is simple.
• In conclusion, modern building construction is a unimportant part of an industrial culture.
• Over time they evolved into such highly refined forms as the igloo.
• It draws upon research establishments that study clothes and performance, code officials.
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