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Encircle the Participles, mark the Present Participle with “Pres.” and Past Participle with “Past” and translate the sentences into Russian
Отметьте предложения, содержащие причастие настоящего времени словом “Pres.”, а предложения, содержащие причастие прошедшего времени словом “Past”.
1. The fine paid amounted to three hundred dollars.
2. All criminal trials in the USA are held before a judge and a jury consisting of twelve ordinary people.
3. The police never found the money stolen in the robbery.
4. I heard him answering the question on the US Constitution.
5. He is going to have this job finished.
6. If read, the article must be discussed.
Choose the right form of the Participle.
Выберите правильную форму причастия.
1. Everything (writing, written) here is quite right.
2. The wall (surrounding, surrounded) the house was very high.
3. The exercises (doing, done) by the students were easy.
4. The girl (washing, washed) the floor is my sister.
5. We listened to the Russian folk songs (singing, sung) by the girls.
6. Do you know the girl (playing, played) in the garden?
Underline the Gerund and translate the sentences into Russian.
Подчеркните Герундий и переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. Law and legislation date back to the days when primitive communal society which had no need for having law, gave way to first class-based socio-economic formation.
2. Laws are made for the sake of man and society with the aim of protecting them.
3. FBI is responsible for investigating of all Federal crimes.
4. After having been identified the offender was arrested by police.
5. There is a need for drawing a distinction between crimes and those violations of law, which are not criminal.
6. The defendant was not informed of the right of being provided with legal counsel at the trial.
Use Infinitive or Gerund.
Употребите инфинитив или герундий.
1. The preliminary hearing is an investigation by a magistrate of the facts and circumstances surrounding a suspect who has been charged with a crime and arrested, in order to determine whether there are sufficient reasons for trial; after (to hear, hearing) the magistrate may find no basis for the charges and dismiss them or present the case to the trial court.
2. The court ruled that an officer may lawfully search a person in the course of
(to make, making) an arrest.
3. I heard him (talk, talking) to somebody loudly.
4. I remember (to meet, meeting) him.
Read and translate the text in written form.
Прочтите и переведите текст письменно.
In the pervious centuries people who wanted to hand in petition or to discuss some project went to Washington, to the Capitol and there met the Congressmen from their states. The tradition is still alive, only today it is big corporations; social organizations, foreign diplomats, etc, who try to influence law making in their favour. This is done with the help of lobbyists who arrange meetings with Congressmen, and through bribery and persuasion make them vote for measures favourable to the group they represent. Practically lobbyism (backstage influencing of legislation) has become legal, it means, that the passing of a bill can be prevented if it does not suit the interests of a definite group of Big Business.
The delicate art of influencing legislation has moved a great distance from the days when votes were bought with black satchels full of money. Today’s successful lobbyists are more likely to be smooth professionals. But if lobbying techniques have grown complicated, the name of the game is still the same: special interest. Lobbyists may call themselves legislative counsels or Washington representatives, but they are still hired to sell their clients special interest.
The lobbyists’ role in government, to hear them tell it, is greatly misunderstood. They only exercise their Constitutional right of petition.
Although a 1946 law requires all lobbyists to register with the clerks of both chambers of Congress, and to give annual reports of the money used for this or that bill, the most effective lobbyists seldom do. They try to remain, if possible, invisible. They do not even like to call themselves lobbyists. But more and more people realize that legislation is shaped as much by the hidden influences as by the public debates.
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