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II. The Forms of the Gerund

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Ex. 27. Study the forms of the gerund.

form active passive
non-perfect The American lady lay without sleeping. My watch needs repairing.* He had a feeling of being watched.
perfect The American lady looked wholesome in spite of not having slept.** I've never heard of the house having been paint­ed*** once since it was built.


Ex. 28. Use the correct form of the gerund.

1. I think I'll have a chance of (to introduce) you to my friends. 2. I've just had the pleasure of (to introduce) to your sister. 3. Every­body was surprised at her (to leave) so soon. 4. I am tired of (to treat) like a child. 5. You've changed so much that he might be excused for not (to recognize) you. 6. She had to leave the house without (to see) by anybody. 7. I remember (to be) on friendly terms with him. 8. This matter wants (to clear up). 9. She was dancing wonderfully. I couldn't help (to impress). 10. Boys always enjoy (to swim). 11. The children were annoyed at (to tell) to leave. 12. She looked disappointed. We suspected him of (to tell) her the sad news.


Ex. 29. Translate the following sentences using gerundial phrases.

1. Прежде чем заполнять анкету, ознакомьтесь с ней. 2. Я пом­ню, как а) я был огорчен его неудачей; б) он был огорчен моей не­удачей. 3. Вы не возражаете, если я присоединюсь к вашей компа­нии? 4. Перестань надоедать ей глупыми вопросами. 5. Мы сократили путь, переплыв' реку. 6. Увидев вдали автобус, я бросился бежать к остановке. 7. Прежде чем давать окончательный ответ, хорошенько подумай. 8. Товарищи внимательно слушали и не прерывали ее. 9. Овод рисковал быть узнанным. 10. Он разорвал письмо, не читая его. 11. Он хорошо разгадывает кроссворды. 12. Мой любимый спорт плавание. 13. Я боюсь провалиться на экзамене. 14. Ребенок боялся, что его оставят одного дома. 15. Она просто не может не опаздывать. 16. Этот факт стоит запомнить. 17. Она рассказывала мне об этом, не глядя мне в глаза. 18. Он далеко не простой человек, и с ним труд­но договориться. 19. Нет смысла обсуждать этот вопрос в его от­сутствии.



Ex. 30. Paraphrase the following sentences using "to forget" or "to remember" followed by either an infinitive or a gerund; mind the explanation given in the model.

M o d e l: He forgot to post the letter (He didn't post it. He forgot.)

He forgot mentioning the fact to her (He mentioned the fact to her and forgot about it.)

I remembered to post the letter (I didn't forget to post it.)

I remember posting the letter (I remember that I posted it.)

1. Do you remember you beat him at chess once? 2. Please, remember that you must ring me up on Saturday. 3. I didn't return the book I had borrowed from him, I quite forgot. 4. She forgot that she had given him her telephone number and was surprised to hear his voice on the phone. 5. She quite forgot that she had asked you to book the tickets. 6. She said that she remembered that she had had a talk with him on the subject. 7. I remember I enjoyed this film. 8. Don't forget that you must write a letter. 9. Did she remember that she was to get in touch with him? 10. She forgot that she had postponed the appointment.


Ex. 31. Fill in the blanks with "not" or "without "* thus using either Participle 1 or gerund.

1. ... knowing the answer, she continued to puzzle over the problem. 2. He looked at me ... recognizing me. 3. ... recognizing me she passed by. 4. He received the news calmly ... making a fuss about it. 5. I kept silent ... wishing to attract attention. 6. ... having noticed the mistake he could not understand why they were laughing at him. 7. She depart­ed ... once turning her head. 8. She felt lonely ... having any friends there. 9. He left the house ... waking anyone. 10. I hung up the phone ... waiting for her answer.


Ex. 32. Translate the following sentences using the gerund, the infin­itive or Participle I according to the sense.

1. Ему стыдно, что он вышел из себя. 2. Ему было стыдно при­знаться (сказать), что он не сдал экзамен по английскому языку. 3. Я боюсь, что мне зададут этот вопрос. 4. Я боюсь сидеть на сквоз­няке. 5. Я помню, что ему предлагали эту работу. 6. Я забыл пред­ложить ему чашку чая. 7. Он не забыл навести справки об условиях приема в институт. 8. Она заявила, что уже включила его в список. 9. Они остановились, чтобы перекусить. 10. Они перестали спорить. Они поняли, что это потеря времени. 11. Не желая ссориться с ним, она переменила тему разговора. 12. Они могли спорить, не ссорясь. 13. Ножницы используются для стрижки волос, разрезания бумаги, ткани и т.п. 14. Я воспользовалась ножом, чтобы разрезать книгу.


Ex. 33. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of a verbal (gerund, participle or infinitive).

Dora got into the train. It was now very full indeed and people were sitting four a side. Before ... (to sit down) she inspected herself quickly in the mirror. She looked good in spite of ... (not to sleep). She turned towards her seat. A large elderly lady moved a little ... (to make room). (It was a devilish hot day). She thought that she was lucky ... (to have a seat) and with a certain satisfaction watched the corridor ... (to fill) with people who had no seats.

Another elderly lady, ... (to make one's way) through the crowd reached the door of Dora's carriage and addressed her neighbour. "Ah, there you are, dear, I thought you were nearer the front." They looked at each other rather sadly. The ... (to stand) lady had her feet ... (to catch) in the luggage. They began a conversation about how they had never seen the train so full.

Dora stopped ... (to listen), ... (to strike) by a terrible thought. She ought to give up her seat. She refused to believe the thought but it came back. There was no doubt about it. The elderly lady who was stand­ing looked very weak indeed, and it was only proper that Dora, who was young and healthy, should give her seat to the lady who could then sit next to her friend. Dora felt the blood ... (to rush) to her face. She sat still ... (to think over) the matter. There was no point in ... (to be hasty). It was possible of course that while clearly ... (to understand) that she ought to give up her seat she might nevertheless simply not do so out of pure selfishness. On the other side of the ... (to stand) lady a man was sitting. He was reading his newspaper and didn't seem ... (to think) about his duty. There was another aspect to the matter. She had taken the trouble of ... (to arrive) early, and surely ought ... (to reward) for this. Though perhaps the two ladies had arrived as early as they could? There was no ... (to know). But in any case there was an elementary justice in the first comers ... (to have) their seats. She thought of her state of mind as neurotic. She decided not to give up her seat.

She got up and said to the lady "Do sit down here, please. I'm not going far, and I'd much rather ... (to stand)."

"How very kind of you!" said the lady. "Now I can sit next to my friend. I have a seat of my own further down, you know. Perhaps we can just exchange seats? Do let me ... (to help) you to move your lug­gage." The train began ... (to move).

On ... (to reach) the other carriage Dora at once saw an empty cor­ner seat by the window. The elderly lady departed and Dora settled down.

(after "The Bell" by Iris Murdoch)


Ex. 34. Test Translation.

1. По случаю окончания института мы организовали вечер. 2. Я мало знаю его. Мы встречаемся от случая к случаю, и разговор у нас обычно бывает только об учебе. 3. На мой взгляд это был не по­вод для шуток. 4. После большого и шумного города жизнь в деревне показалась им скучной и однообразной. 5. Если у вас плоскостопие, то вам лучше бы сделать туфли на заказ. 6. Невзирая на все доводы, он наотрез отказался принять наши условия. 7. Чем был вызван его поспешный отъезд? — Трудно сказать. 8. Еще до сих пор не назначен день отъезда. А ведь нам надо подумать о билетах. 9. Не­смотря на то, что результаты работы были хорошими по сравнению с прошлогодними, главный инженер сказал, что надо добиться того, чтобы они были еще лучше. 10. Вам стоит починить холодильник. Он вполне еще может послужить. Ремонт обойдется недорого. 11. Из него определенно вышел бы хороший спортсмен, если бы он больше тренировался. 12. Я чувствую себя неловко в этом пальто. Оно мне велико. Мне надо было бы купить другое, на размер меньше. 13. Кни­ги были единственным утешением для него во время болезни. 14. Этим вопросом следует заняться отдельно. Он требует изучения. 15. Они знали, что все трудности уже были позади, и это была очень утеши­тельная мысль. 16. Ему, вероятно, потребуется немало времени, чтобы придти в себя после такого потрясения. 17. Просят, чтобы выступающие не отклонялись от темы, а говорили по существу. 18. Це­на за товар не включает упаковку. Плата за упаковку взимается отдельно.



Ex. 35. Retell in narrative form.

I went to Grand Central Station to see off my uncle's family. There the train came in a little before twelve. I helped my uncle take the things into the compartment. It seemed as if only a few minutes had passed, but it was time for me to get off the train. I kissed my little cousins good-bye and gave them each a box of chocolates. "I'll miss you, Frankie," Irene, the older one, said. "I'll miss you too," I said. I turned to my uncle and held out my hand. We shook. "Good-bye, uncle. Good luck."

He smiled. "So long, Frankie. Be a good boy. It won't be long be­fore we are back again."

My aunt was next. She put her arms around me and kissed me. She was crying. "I wish you were coming with us, Frankie," she said.

"I do, too," I said. I could hardly keep from crying, I tried not to because I didn't want them to feel bad. "Thanks for everything."

I didn't know what to say. Just then the porter touched me on the shoulder. "You'd better be getting off, sir. We're going to start any minute."

I nodded to him. I stood up and looked at them. "Well," I said, "so long." I could feel the tears coming into my eyes in spite of all my efforts, so I turned and got off the train.

I heard their good-bye in my ears as I walked down the platform to where their window was and waved to them. The girls had their noses flat against the glass. My uncle was trying to say something, but I couldn't hear him through the closed window. The signal of departure was given and the train started.


Ex. 36. Answer the following questions using the active vocabulary of the text. Sum up your answers.

The Railway

1. How old is the railway? 2. When did the first railway lines appear in Europe? 3. What two cities did the first railway line connect in Rus­sia? 4. What are the main lines in our country now? 5. Why is it impor­tant that industrial centres should have more railway lines? 6. How are the tracks kept in order? Why is it necessary that they should be cleared of snow, etc? 7. What kinds of engines are used more often now: steam or diesel-oil-electric? 8. Why are lines electrified?


The Train

1. What does a modern train look like? 2. What kind of engines have: suburban, fast, goods trains*? 3. How many carriages are there in a suburban, fast, goods train? 4. In what way does a carriage of a local train differ from that of a fast train? 5. Why are there no compart­ments on a local train? 6. Why are there sleeping and restaurant cars only on long-distance trains? 7. How many passengers does a local train carriage (a long-distance train compartment) hold? 8. What does a goods train carry? 9. What is the speed of a suburban train, a fast train, a goods train? 10. What kind of service do you get on the train?


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