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What is a Computer?

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  1. What is computer? P.8

As with any problem-solving tool, you must understand the purposes for

which computers can and cannot be used. What is the value of computers to

you? Over the last decade, computers have become more powerful, easier to

use, and less expensive. Thus, the effort required to apply computers in per-

sonal and professional pursuits is much simpler than it was a decade ago.

Like all revolutionary technologies, such as electricity, telephones, and

automobiles, computers have been embraced by individuals and organizations

rather quickly. Thus, a certain amount of computer literacy is necessary to

keep pace with rapid technological advances. Computers, although important,

are not an end in themselves. They are simply tools. They are really nothing

more than unusually fast and precise machines with an extraordinary abil-

ity to remember massive amount of detail. The computer’s speciality is

data processing, performing specific operations on data: adding, substract-

ing, multiplying, and dividing numbers and comparing them and remem-

bering them. These fundamental operations, conducted in countless combi-

nations at tremendous speed, are the essence of all the computer’s enormously

varied applications. The computer can thus answer some highly complex ques-

tions, although the human being must tell it what to do and how to do it.

A computer is an electronic device that can accept input, process it accord-

ing to a set of instructions, store the instructions and the results of process-

ing, and produce results as its output.

The facts, numbers, letters, and images input to a computer are called

data. The instructions that carry out the processing are called computer

programs or software. The output, intended for use and interpretation

by people, is called information.

 


II. Answer the questions.
1. What do we call facts, numbers, letters, and images input to a computer?
2. What do we call software?
3. What do we call the output intended for use and interpretation by people? 4. In what spheres are computers being used now?
5. What is the difference between data and information?

III.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form.
1. I saw her husband (talk) to a strange girl in the park.
2. My mother would have been angry if we (not phone) her.
3. She wanted to know where I usually (park) my car. 4. Mr. Jackson was accused of (murder) his boss.
5. The flat they moved into (devastate) by its previous owners.
6. While the president (fly) to Canada his plane (fall) into the sea.
7. Peter shouldn't worry about the test next week. I told him that it (be) easy and that he (have) plenty of time.
8. I (walk) in silence when he suddenly (ask) me to help him.
9.1 just (have) breakfast when the telephone (ring). When I came back to my coffee, it (be) cold.
10. When I (finish) my letter in the hall, a tall beautiful woman with red hair (enter).



IV. Test.
1. … child can understand it.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
2. … wounded were taken to hospital.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
3. … sit on the shore.
a) woman b) womans c)women d) womens
4. Moscow is … than Leningrad .
a) larger b) more large c) largest d) the larger
5. We usually … the flat on Sundays.
a) cleaned b) cleans c) clean d) have cleaned
6. I … TV when she came.
a) watching b) was watching c)were watching d)watched
7. He … all the articles by the end of the lesson.
a) had learned b) learning c) learns d) had been learning

8. I … the newspaper for an hour when he came.
a) was reading b) read c) was read d) had been reading
9.Find a mistake.
When I entered the room, he weretranslatingthe article.
a) entered b) were c)translating d)the
10. These goods are worth buying.
a) Купуйте ці товари.
b) Ці товари не варто купувати.
c) Я повинен купити ці товари.
d) Ці товари варто купити.

V. Insert preposition where necessary.1. A floor is the walking surface ….. a room or vehicle.
2. Floors vary …… simple dirt in a cave to many-layered surfaces using modern technology.
3. Floors typically consist …. a subfloor for support and a floor covering used to give a good walking surface.
4. ….. modern buildings the subfloor often has electrical wiring, plumbing, and other services built in.
5. Floor covering is a term to generically describe any finish material applied …. a floor structure to provide a walking surface. 6. Flooring is the general term …. a permanent covering of a floor, or for the work of installing such a floor covering. 7. Both terms are used interchangeably but floor covering refers more …. loose-laid materials. 8. The choice of material for floor covering is affected …. factors such as cost, endurance, noise insulation, comfort and cleaning effort.
9.The subfloor may be finished … a way that makes it usable without any extra work.
10. Floors may be built … beams or joists or use structures like prefabricated hollow core slabs.



ВАРІАНТ № 25

I.Translate the text into Ukraine.

Computer in Business
Computers are used to help businesses automate the collection and processing of data, and the production and distribution of information. Of course, these tasks can be accomplished manually, but factors such as increased complexity of the business environment, rapid growth, increased competition, the value of information, and even social pressure are encouraging businesses to adopt computers as solutions to many problems. One of the earliest applications for computers was accounting and bookkeeping, activities that are concerned with recording and processing the basic busi-

ness transactions of an organization. An order entry system accepts customer orders,checks the customer's credit status, and verifies that the ordered items are in stock. An accounts receivable system keeps track of money received or owed by customers. An accounts payable system keeps track of money owed to suppliers. In a business that produces goods, an inventory system keeps track of the goods on hand for sale or shipment to customers. A payroll system calculates employee pay checks and keeps track of withholding taxes, employee benefits, insurance, and dues. A general ledger system summarizes all of the basic transactions and is used to produce the information concerning the financial status of the business, such as the chart of accounts, income statements, and balance sheets.

Office automation is technology that reduces the amount of human effort necessary to perform tasks in the office. Today’s businesses have a wide variety of office automation technology at their disposal. The list includes telephones, fax machines, and computers; word processing, spreadsheet, and database programs; and two-way cable and satellite communication systems. Each of these components is intended to automate a task or function that is presently performed manually.

In the period from the 1960s to the present, offices were expanding so rapidly that it was assumed that more productive ways of producing and distributing paperwork were needed. Attention began to focus on automating the repetitive tasks of the clerical worker, and the result was the evolution of office automation.

II. Answer the questions.
1. What factors promoted a wide computer application in businesses?

2. In what business spheres were computers first applied?

3. What does the term “office automation” mean?

4. What components of office automation are at the disposal of today’s businesses?

5. Are modern computers able to solve any problems at the level of human expert?


III.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form.
1. If he (not be) so much in love, he (not buy) her flowers every day.
2. Look at that boy! He is dirty all over his face. I think he (eat) chocolate.
3. Don't let the children (eat) too much ice cream!
4. I (study) English for some months now and I (not discover) anything really difficult so far.
5. I (wait) a year now and my phone still (not come).
6. Yesterday at 8.30 Peter (meet) Bill and (offer) him an apple.
7. ' Where you (be)? Your supper (be) in the oven for an hour.'
8. While I (was waiting/waited/have waited) for him to call up, he (had/was having/have had) a good time in the bar.
9. She (has written/wrote/was writing) this exercise yesterday at 8 o'clock.
10 . He (has invited/was inviting/ invited) me to the party yesterday.

IV. Test.
1. During … storm the captain must be on deck.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
2. There are special schools for … blind in our country.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
3. What do you know about …?
a) deer b) a deer c)the deers d) deers
4. He is much … than me.
a) taller b) tall c) the taller d) tallest
5. He saw this strange man last year.
a) seen b) saw c) have seen d) sees
6. He … bitterly when I saw him.
a) cries b) is crying c) cried d) was crying
7. I … my dear child! What shall I do?
a) lost b) have lost c) lose d) will lose

8. He … for this company for twenty years.
a) works b) will work c) has been working d) worked
9.Find a mistake.
He said that Tom isreading at the moment.
a) He b) that c)is d)reading

10. He looks forward to hearing from you soon.
a) Він з нетерпінням чекає від вас новин.
b) Він з нетерпінням чекає на вас.
c) Він з нетерпінням чекає на вашу відповідь.
d) Він з нетерпінням хоче бачити вас.


V. Insert preposition where necessary.

  1. A natural material ____building dwellings for thousands of years, wood was also used to make Churches in the past.
  2. The main problems ____wood structures are fire risk and moisture-related problems.
  3. Wood is an aesthetically pleasing material that never goes _____ trend completely, though the current popularity of composite and engineered materials are taking its place in many construction sites
  4. There are many types of rock _____the world all with differing attributes that make them better or worse for particular uses.
  5. Rock is a very dense material so it gives a lot of protection too, its main draw-back ____as a material is its weight and awkwardness.

6. Its energy density is also considered a big draw-back, as stone is hard to keep warm without using large amounts ____heating resources.

7. Dry – stone walls have been built for as long as humans have put one stone ____top of another

8. Eventually different forms ____mortar were used to hold the stones together, cement being the most commonplace now.

9. Circular huts were constructed ____loose granite rocks throughout the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, and the remains of an estimated 5,000 can still be seen today.

10. Slate is another stone type, commonly used as roofing material ___the UK and other parts of the world where it is found.

 


ВАРІАНТ № 26

I.Translate the text into Ukraine.


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