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I.Translate the text into Ukraine. WHERE AND HOW TO HIRE AN EMPLOYEE?

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1. An employer has several options to consider when he wants to hire a new employee. First of all, he may look within his own company. But if he can't find anybody suitable for the position, he will have to look outside the company. If there is a personnel office in the company, he can ask them to help him to find a qualified applicant. The employer can also use other valuable sources, for example, employment agencies, consulting firms, placement offices and professional societies. He can also advertise in a newspaper or in a magazine and request candidates to send in resumes.

2. The employer has two sets of qualifications to consider if he wants to choose from among the applicants. He must consider both professional qualifications and personal characteristics. A candidate's education, experience and skills are included in his professional qualifications. These can be listed on a resume. Personal characteristics or

personality traits must be evaluated through interviews.

II. Answer the questions.
1. Which options should an employer first consider when he wants to hire a new employee?
2. What services does a personnel department provide?

3. In what way can the new employees be found outside one's company?

4. What qualifications does the employer consider in choosing an


5. What is meant by "professional qualification" for a job?


III. Put the verbs in brackets into correct tense form.
1.They (to write ) a lexical quiz tomorrow. 2. The students of poly-technical school ( to write ) a paper by 5 o`clock tomorrow.
3. Our group ( to copy out) the task from the blackboard when the lecturer comes.
4. The post-graduate ( to make ) his report all previous morning yesterday.
5. Water ( to boil ) at 100 degrees above zero Celsius.
6. Look! He ( to try ) to repair his new bicycle. 7. He ( to try ) his old car yesterday from 5 till 8 p.m.
8. You may ( to go ) no further today!
9. The Egyptian pyramids ( to be built ) by the end of the third millennium
Before Christ.
10. The Doctor of Science ( to affirm ) it long ago.

IV. Test.
1. Your jeans … hanging in the wardrobe.
a) is b) are c) have d) has
2. … likes to travel by air.
a) You b) I c) We d) She
3. I am busy at the moment. I … on the computer.
a) work b) worked c) am working d) have been working
4. Pineapples … in Hawaii.
a) are growing b) is grown c) are grown d) grew
5. If … for a walk, we will take the dog with us.
a) we will go b) we go c) we would go d) we have go
6. In six months he … to read English newspapers.
a) can b) must c) will be able d) should
7. You can … my dictionary whenever you like.
a) to use b) use c) using d) used
8. Ann, do not … so loudly, the kids are sleeping.
a) speak b) try c) say d) tell
9. Find a mistake:
The worse your school marks are, the angriest your parents become.
a)school b) are c) angriest d) become

10. I was glad to find my lost book under the table.
a) Я зрадів, коли знайшов свою загублену книжку під столом.
в) Я був щасливий від того, що знайшов потрібну книжку на столі.
с) Я зрадів, що знайшов свою загублену книжку під столом.
d) Мені радісно знайти свою книжку під столом.

V. Insert preposition where necessary.

1. A thermometer is used _____ measuring temperature.

2. He likes to play ______ his children.

3. I shall finish my work_____ five o’clock.

4. He traveled _____ the world.

5. I looked into the box, but there was nothing______.

6. They will arrive here ____ May.

7. I would like you to answer _____ my question.

8. Payment will be made_____ ten days.

9. He stooped______ the door.

10. I have not see him____ he returned to Kyiv.



I.Translate the text into Ukraine.


In business organization structure means the relationship between positions and people who hold the positions. Organization structure is very important because it provides an efficient work system as well as a system of communication.

Historically, line structure is the oldest type of organization structure. The main idea of it is direct vertical relationship between the positions and tasks of each level, and the positions and tasks above and bellow each level. For example, a sales manager may be in a line position between a vice-president of marketing and a salesman. Thus a vice-president of marketing has direct authority over a salesman. This chain of command simplifies the problems of giving and taking orders.

When a business grows in size and becomes more complex, there is a need for specialists. In such a case administrators may organize staff departments and add staff specialists to do specific work. These people are usually busy with services, they are not tied in with the company product. The activities of the staff departments include an accounting, personnel, credit and advertising. Generally, they do not give orders to other departments.

II. Answer the questions.
1. What does the organization structure mean?
2. What does the organization structure provide?
3. What is historically the oldest type of organization structure?

4. In what position is a sales manager in attitude to a vice-president

of marketing and a salesman?
5. What is the difference between line and staff departments?

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form.
1.Great successes ( to be achieved ) by our scientists in various branches of machine-building.
2. In 1970 scientists ( to probe ) the internal structure of atoms by means of accelerators.
3. There ( to be ) a great number of weighing of atoms in not too distant future.
4. Researchers ( to obtain ) heavier elements than those which exist naturally by the end of this century.
5. The post-graduate just ( to finish ) a dangerous experiment in the laboratory.
6. Look! Those school-mates ( to work ) hard.
7. The technicians ( to repair ) the airplane from previous noon till midnight.
8. You ( to see ) a new method instead of present one by the end of this month.
9. You ( to hear ) about the discoveries of trans-uranium elements?
10. The students of the Stanford University ( to make ) photos of the atoms` traces all next morning.

IV. Test.
1. Where … my scissors?
a) is b) are c) have d) has
2. … arrives according to the schedule.
a) They b) It c) We d) I
3. Here is my report. I … it at last.
a) finish b) finished c) am finished d) have finished
4. The building … recently and looks impressive.
a) has been repaired b) is repaired c) was repaired d) repaired
5. When they … the criminals, I shall get my car back.
a) catch b) catches c) will catch d) shall catch
6. You … be ready to answer all my questions.
a) need b) must c) ought d) have
7. “ I`d better … early”, said Roy.
a) got b) to be getting c) to get d)get
8. Mother tried … the table for dinner before the children came back from school.
a) to put b) to lay c) to lie d) to cover
9. Find a mistake:
taking the medicine now, doesn`the?
a) He`s b) the c) doesn`t d) he

10. He doesn`t often write sentences on the blackboard.
a) Він не часто пише речення на дошці.
в) Він часто не писав речення на дошці.
с) Він завжди не пише речення на дошці.
d)Він не завжди писав речення на дошці.

V. Insert preposition where necessary.
1. The Phoenicians travelled right round Africa ... small boats.
2. The journey was planned ... Necho ... 600 BC.
3. He was interested ... finding a sea route ... the Red Sea ... the Mediterranean.4. ... those days, nobody knew how big Africa was. 5. The Phoenicians lived ... the eastern end ... the Mediter­ranean.
6. They set off ... the beginning of winter.
7. Month ... month went by; they were amazed to see that the sun was now ... the north ... midday.
8. ... six months the coast turned west.
9. While they were sailing ... the west coast of Africa they ran out ... food.
10. It took eighteen months ... them to reach Morocco.


I.Translate the text into Ukraine.


The number of new products coming into the market of western countries every year is overwhelming. A lot of these products are not new, but adaptations. It means that these products are not new, they are existing items to which a modification has been made. Only few products are really original or innovations. For instance, a clock

television is an adaptation, but TV-set itself, the refrigerator — each was an innovation. A great number of innovations and adaptations are designed, produced and marketed by small businesses. Very often a new product is formed on the basis of new business. Sometimes there is a patent to make the business more successful. But it happens

very often that market research hasn't been done carefully.

Even in case larger scale producers do more research and testing there is no sure success. A promising new product may be also robbed of success by unreasonable prices, inadequate promotion and poor selling methods. Generally, less than one fifth of all new products turn out to be profitable.


II. Answer the questions.
1. How can you explain the term "adaptation"?
2. What is an innovation?
3. Give your own examples of innovations and adaptations.
4. Why are many innovations and adaptations manufactured and marketed
by small businesses?
5. Why is it so important to obtain a patent?

III. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense form.
1.They (to provide) every building with running water, electricity and gas. 2.Students (to see) the construction of a plant with great interest last Tuesday.
3.The first pyramid (to be built) by the end of the 28-th century before Christ. 4.The glazier (to install) Euro windows from noon till 5 p.m. yesterday. 5.In future computers (to calculate) faster than at present. 6.The assemblers (to mount) the steel framework by the end of the next month. 7.Do not disturb me! I (to plaster) the wall ! 8.The construction team not (to weld) the joints, yet. 9.Laminate (to resist) severe conditions of exploitation by the end of the previous season. 10.He (to nail) sheets of decorative plastics all the next morning.

IV. Test.
1. There … a lecture on mathematic today.
a) is b) are c) have d) has
2. Does … go to London by plane?
a) they b) you c) we d) he
3. We … to Odessa for our holidays last month.
a) goes b) going c) have gone d)went
4. She came back to town where she … .
a) has born b) will be born c) is born d) was born
5. Will she be upset if she … the news?
a) heard b) is hearing c) hears d) had heard
6. She … to look up the words in the dictionary.
a) will b) may c) must d) had
7. Come and help me … the shopping.
a) to do b) did c) done d) doing
8. The teacher … the pupils` attention to several historic facts.

a) paid b) sold c) attracted d) rejected 9. Find a mistake:
She is having a bath when Jack came
a) is b) a bath c) when d) Jack

10. Many birds fly to the south in autumn.
a) Багато птахів відлетіли на південь восени.
в) Багато птахів відлітають на південь восени.
с) Багато птахів відлетять на південь восени.
d) Багато птахів відлетіли на північ восени.

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