Wholesaling is a part of marketing system. It provides channels of distribution which help to bring goods to the market. Generally, indirect channels are used to market manufactured consumer goods. It could be from the manufacturer to the wholesaler, from the retailer to the consumer or through more complicated channels. A direct
channel moves goods from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer.
Wholesaling is often a field of small business, but there is a growing chain movement in the western countries. About a quarter of wholesaling units account for the one-third of total sales.
Two-third of the wholesaling middlemen are merchant wholesalers who take title to the goods they deal in. There are also agent middlemen who negotiate purchases or sales or both. They don`t take title to the goods they deal in. Sometimes they take possession though. These agents don't earn salaries. They receive commissions. This is a percentage of the value of the goods they sell.
Wholesalers simplify the process of distribution. For example, the average supermarket stocks 5,000 items in groceries alone, a retail druggist can have more than 6,000 items. As a wholesaler handles a large assortment of items from numerous manufacturers he reduces the problem of both manufacturer and retailer. The store keeper does not have to deal directly with thousands of different people. He usually
has a well-stocked store and deals with only a few wholesalers.
II. Answer the questions. 1. What is the aim of the wholesaling? 2. How can you describe a direct channel of distribution? 3. What is an indirect channel of distribution? 4. What channel of distribution is preferable? 5. Is there any difference between a merchant wholesaler and an
agent middleman? What is this difference?
III. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. 1.Lots of people (to enter) this University every year. 2. What you (to do) now? Can you come and help me? 3.Yesterday it (to be) very cold, but today it is much warmer. 4."What are you looking for? You (to lose) your glasses?" 5.I think I (to get up) earlier tomorrow. 6.I (not to understand) him until he repeated his words twice. 7.You (to look through) my papers when I entered the room. 8. What you (to do) last evening? 9.They (to stay) at home all day long tomorrow. 10. By the end of this year Mr. Faith (to work) for his company for fifty years.
IV. Test. 1. His accommodation ... luxurious. a) is b) are c) have d) has 2. Our new car is small, so it uses ... petrol, than our old one. a) a little b) less c) the least d) small 3. I already ... my things and I am ready to go. a) packed b) have packed c) pack d) was packing 4. Many new houses ... in our city now. a) were built b) are built c) have been built d) are being built 5. If... a stone into the sea it will sink. a) you will throw b) you would throw c) you throw d) you threw 6. They ... easily get to the University in half an hour. a) ought to b) could c) should d)must 7.Everyone came out of the house ... the new car. a) admire b) to admire c) to be admired d) admired 8. After ... the film the students started discussing it. a) seeing b) watching c) washing d) inspecting 9. Find mistake A lot of interesting books was read by my classmates last year. a) a b) was c) read d) last year 10. Foreign language clubs give a lot for developing the general outlook of our pupils. a) Клуб іноземної мови сприяє розвитку світогляду учнів. b)Учні розвивають свій загальний світогляд у клубах іноземної мови. c)Клуби іноземної мови чимало дають для розвитку загального світогляду наших учнів. d)Клуби іноземної мови допомагають розвивати кругозір наших учнів.
V. Insert preposition where necessary. 1. He isn't living ... home now, but if you write ... his home they'll forward the letter ... his new address. 2. I went ... bed early but I couldn't get ... sleep because the people ... the next room were talking so loudly. 3. ... first I found the work very tiring, but ... a few weeks I got used ... it. 4. There was an accident ... the cross-roads ... midnight last night. Two men were taken ... hospital. I believe one of them is still . . hospital. 5. ... the daytime the streets are crowded but ... night they are quite deserted. 6. ... first her father refused to allow her to go back ... work; but .. the end he agreed. 7. ... the beginning of a textbook there is a preface, and ... the end there is an index. 8. He went ... sea ... 18, and spent all his working life ... sea. He retired ... 56 and went to live ... the country. 9 I saw Tom ... the bus stop this morning but couldn't speak .. him because we were standing ... a queue and he was ... the front of it and I was ... the back. 10. BBC stands ... British Broadcasting Corporation.
ВАРІАНТ № 6
I.Translate the text into Ukraine.
Retailing is selling goods and services to the ultimate consumer. Thus, the retailer is the most expensive link in the chain of distribution. Being middlemen, they make their profit by charging the customer 25 to 100 per cent more than the price they paid for the item.
The retailers operate through stores, mail-order houses, vending machine operators. There are different types of retail stores: department stores, discount houses, cooperatives, single line retailers. The major part (over 95 per cent) of retail establishments concentrate on a single line of merchandise for example, food hardware,
etc. But nowadays there is a trend for many single line stores to take on a greater variety of supplies.
The retailer performs many necessary functions. First, he may provide a convenient location. Second, he often guarantees and services the merchandise he sells. Third, the retailer helps to promote the product through displays, advertising or sales. Fourth, the retailer can finance the customer by extending credit. Also the retailer stores the goods in his outlet by having goods available.
II. Answer the questions. 1. What is retailing?
2. What are four different types of retail stores?
3. What are at least two types of retailing that do not include the uiw
of a store?
4. In what way does a retailer serve a customer?
5. In what way does a retailer serve a manufacturer?
III. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. 1. Our secretary (to type) a great number of letters every day. . 2. They (to write) a composition now? 3. Yesterday I (to go) to London to see a friend of mine. 4. "Do you want to watch this film?" "Oh, no. I already, (to see) it". 5. He (to pack) his bags tomorrow morning. 6. She (not to talk) to him until he finished revising for his exams. 7. She burnt her hand when she (to cook) dinner. 8. Excursions (to be) interesting yesterday? 9.Pete (to fix) his car the whole morning. 10. I hope they (to building) this bridge by the end of the year.
IV. Test. 1.Her furniture ... very expensive. a) is b) are c) have d) has 2.We could have found the place ... with a map. a) easy b) easier c) more easily d) most a map 3. Victory ... any mistakes in the text, did he? a) didn't make b) made c) had made d) hadn't made 4. I can't say anything because my words ... against me. a) will use b) are being used c) will be used d) are using 5. If he drops out of college he ... to look for a job. a) have b) should have c) will have d) would have 6. However had I tried, I ... finish the work in time. a) can't b) mustn't c) couldn't d) may not 7. I'd rather ... to her alone. a) to be talked b) to talk c)talk d) talking 8. If you ... to me at 5, we can play tennis together. a) go b) come c) walk d) run 9. Find mistake. One of her teeth are in a bad condition. a) of b) teeth c) are d) a 10. We all agree that it is better late than never. a) Ми вci згодні, що краще пізно, ніж ніколи. b) Ми вci були згодні, що краще пізно, ніж ніколи. c) Ми погодились, що краще пізно, ніж ніколи. d) Ми вважали, що краще пізно, ніж ніколи.
V. Insert preposition where necessary. 1. I'll leave some sandwiches ... the fridge in case you are hungry when you come in. 2. We'd better start ... six, because climbing up ... the gallery takes some time. I hope you don't mind sitting ... the gallery No, of course not. When I go ... the opera I always go ... the gallery. 3. He is always ... a hurry. He drives ... a tremendous speed. 4. When he began speaking ... English, she looked ... him .. amazement. 5. Write ... ink and put your name ... the top of the page. 6. We start serving breakfast ... 7.30. Shall I send yours up ... your room, or will you have it ... the restaurant? 7. He's always ... a bad temper ... breakfast time. 8. According ... the guidebook there are three hotels ... the town. 9. The pilot climbed ... 5,000 metres and flew ... that height till he got ... the coast. Then he came down ... 1,000 metres and began to take photographs. 10. I'm interested ... chess but I'm not very good ... it.
ВАРІАНТ № 7
I.Translate the text into Ukraine.
All products and all services have prices. The price depends on different
things such as credit terms, delivery, trade-in allowance, guarantees, quality and other forms of service, which price can produce the biggest profit during a long period of time. It's hardly possible to determine such a price. The price may be too high to produce a large volume or too low to cover costs. No other area of marketing
operations has been a subject to bad practice. Many businesses pursue unsound price policies for long periods of time and are not aware about it.
Prices can be determined in different ways. For example, the prices on meat, cotton, and other agricultural products can be decided in a large central market where forces of supply and demand exist. This is pure price competition. The prices on industrial products (iron, steel, etc.) are usually decided by large companies. As a rule the
amount and price of goods sold to a large number of buyers are controlled by a few competing sellers. Prices also can be set by the government, usually for different public services — railroads, electricity, manufactured gas, bus services, etc.
If demand increases, prices rise, profits expand and new investment is attracted. But other factors may be involved as well. Prices are related to each other in different ways. Ultimately, everything is related by price, since the consumer can buy and must pay for everything out of a particular, limited amount of money. II. Answer the questions. 1. Why is it difficult to determine the right price?
2. Why is the seller interested in the price that produces the highest volume of sales at the lowest unit cost?
3. Why do many businesses follow unsound pricing policies?
4. In what way are agricultural prices decided?
5. How are industrial products usually priced?
III. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. 1.In summer Tom usually (to play) tennis twice a week. 2.Your parents (to redecorate )your dining-room now? 3. He (to get) an excellent mark for his last test. 4. "Where is your father?" "I don't know. He just (to go out)". 5.Tina (to bring) this new record tomorrow: be sure to come. 6.When she left, she remembered that she (not to lock) the door. 7.They (to do) their homework when I came to see them. 8.How long you (to stay) here last year? 9.He (to come) in three days approximately at this time. 10.They (to be married) for five years tomorrow.
III. Test. 1. Your socks ... in the drawer a) Is b) are c) have d) has 2. This stadium is new. It is the ... stadium in Europe. a) modern b) moderner c) most modern d) more modern 3. I usually ... this fence once a year. a) Paint b) paints c) am painting d) was painting 4. Usually breakfast here ... at 8 o'clock. a) are served b) is served c) has been served d) served 5. If you don't eat vegetables, you ... a balanced diet. a) Wouldn't b) shall have c) shall not have d) will not have 6. Which of your students ... to take part in the concert? a) Can b) may c) will be able d) should 7. You shouldn't... my pen, I need it myself. a) Use b) to use c) using d) used 8. The sportsmen's ... hurt after a long race. a) Arms b) hands c) heads d) feet 9. Find mistake. We have been learning English from 1997. a) Have b) been c) learning d) from 10. I was afraid you misunderstood my proposal. a) Я боялася, що ви не правильно розумієте мою пропозицію. b) Я боюсь, що ви зрозуміли мою пропозицію. c) Я боялася, що ви неправильно зрозуміли мою пропозицію. d) Я боялась, що ви неправильно зрозуміли б мою пропозицію.
V. Insert preposition where necessary. 1. I couldn't offer him a room ... my flat because ... that time my mother-in-law was staying with us. 2. The train stopped ... all the stations, and long before we got ... London every seat was taken and people were standing ... the corridors. 3. Shall we discuss it ... my room, or shall I come ... your office? 4. ... my astonishment I was the only person ... the bar. Everyone else had gone ... the Casino.5. The Loch Ness Monster is supposed to live ... the bottom of the Loch and come ... the surface from time ... time. 6. You can't say that he lives ... luxury. There's hardly any furniture ... his room. He hasn't even got a desk to write ... . 7. I'm going to Bath ... Monday ... Tom. Would you like to come ... us? ~ Are you going ... bus? ~ No, we're going ... Tom's car. 8. I saw him standing ... the queue but I don't know whether he got ... the bus or not.9. How do you go ... school? ~ It depends ... the weather. ... wet days I go ... tube; ... fine .' weather I go ... foot. 10. The car stopped ... the traffic lights and wouldn't start '' again, so the driver got ... and pushed it ... the side ... the road.
ВАРІАНТ № 8
І. Тranslate the text into Ukraine.
The computer industry is one of the largest in western countries and especially in the USA. It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers.
A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions.The operator writes instruction which determine the mathematical operations on information. A computer solves mathematical problems very rapidly. Traditionally, the computer in business is used to process data. This involves different
administrative functions such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. Now the computer takes on new kinds of jobs. It has become more involved in business
operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.
II. Answer the questions. 1. What does the computer industry include?
2. In what way does a computer operate?
3. How was the computer traditionally used in business?
4. What new kinds of jobs is the computer taking on? 5. What problems can the computer solve?
III. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form.
1. We (to come) to the University at the same time. 2. What you (to do) at the moment? Can you help me with my project. 3. Erik (to book) two seats at the Opera. 4. "Do you remember this story well?" "Yes, I just (to read) it." 5.They (to issue) a low-priced edition of this book next mouth. 6. As I (not to get) an answer, I sent him another letter. 7. She (to wait) for a very important phone call yesterday from 8 till 9. 8. How you (to get) to College last year? 9. This time next mouth I (to have rest) in Florida. 10. By the end of the week she (to drive) 50 miles.
IV. Test. 1.Her hair ... beautiful a) is b) are c) have d) has 2. Melanie did ... work in the whole class. a) less b) the least c) little d) small 3. Let's go out. It... any more. a) isn't raining b) doesn't rain c) didn't rain d)shall not rain 4. She ... a box of chocolates for her birthday last week. a) was given b) will be given c) gave d) is given 5. If he ... , tell him I'm busy. a) will call b) call c) called d) calls 6. I... to come to the examination at 9 o'clock. a) can b) was c) must d) may 7. Annie got up ... the table. a) to be cleared b) clear c) to clear d) cleared 8. The boys didn't shake their ... because they were angry with each other. a) arms b) hands c) legs d) feet 9.Find mistake. Everybody know that he is one of the best pupils at our secondary school, a) know b)the c) pupils d)secondary 10. She was happy to find the necessary vocabulary in the language room. a) Вона була щаслива з того, що знайшла потрібний їй словник у кабінеті мови. b) Вона була щаслива, коли знайшла словник у кабінеті мови. c) Вона зраділа, коли знайшла потрібний словник у бібліотеці. d) Вона була рада знайти цей словник у кабінеті.
V.Insert preposition where necessary.
1. Someone threw a stone ... the speaker. It hit him ... the head and knocked his glasses. 2. I want to post this ... a friend ... Italy. Will he have to pay duty ... it? 3. According ... Tom, it is impossible to live ... Paris ... less than £10,000 a year. 4. Are you ... your own (alone)'? ~ No, I'm ... a friend ... mine. 5. You ought to be ashamed ... yourself for coming ... my nice clean kitchen ... muddy boots. 6 Children get presents ... Christmas and ... their birthdays. 7. How would we get ... (escape from) this room if the hotel were ... fire? 8. He arrived ... London ... 6 p.m. ... a foggy November day. We often have fogs ... November. 9. The man ... his back ... the camera is the Minister ... Agriculture. 10. How do I get ... the Public Library? ~ Go ... the end ... this street and turn right; turn left ... the next traffic lights and then take the second turning ... your right.
ВАРІАНТ № 9 I.Translate the text into Ukraine.
SETTING UP A LIMITED COMPANY
Four men, Derek, Roger, Malcolm and John, have started a limited company in Britain. They are all investors and shareholders. Roger invested 20,000 pounds. John put in 10,000 pounds. Derek's contribution was 55,000 pounds, the capital of Malcolm being 15,000 pounds. The company is called - DRMS Ltd.£ 100.000 (100,000x£l).
Derek is the majority shareholder (he owns the most shares). Derek also has a controlling interest (he owns more than 50% of the shares). The company's capital (the money it has for buying goods and equipment) is 100,000 pounds.
The company's capital is divided into 100,000 shares of 1 pound each.
1 pound is the nominal value (or the par value, or the face value) of each share. Malcolm owns 15,000 shares. The nominal value of his shares is 15,000 pounds. After a year, the company makes 15,000 pound profit. This is divided between the shareholders. The company announces a dividend of 15 p. (pence) per share (15,000 pound profit — 100,000 shares).
Malcolm received 2,250 pounds (15,000 shares x 15 p.).
II. Answer the questions. 1. What is it necessary to do to set up a limited company in Britain? 2. What capitals did the four men invest in the limited company? 3. Who was the majority shareholder among the founders of the
4. Why did Derek have a controlling interest in the company?
5. What divident did the company announce after a year of activities?
III. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct Tense form. 1.Pete always (to read) some pages from one book or another before going to bed. 2.Excuse me, I (to look for) the post-office. Is there one near hear? 3.Last year Marie (to work) as an interpreter in Germany. 4."Jack (to move) into his new house yet?" "I don't know." 5. They (to write) a test tomorrow at their French lesson. 6. They (not to complete) the test when the teacher came. 7. My father (to read) a newspaper when my aunt called him. 8.The weather (to be) fine yesterday? 9.In a hundred years people (to go) to Moon and Venus for their week-ends. 10.They (to pick) all the apples by the end of October.
IV. Test 1. This information ... incorrect. a) is b) are c) have d) has 2. ... is our neighbor here. a) You ; b) We ; c) I ; d) She. 3. People ... speak English all over the world. a) speaks b) speak c) has spoken d) had spoken 4. They said that the new school ... in that area. a) is being built b) will be built c) builds d) would be built 5. Paul will tear his jeans if he ... that tree. a) climbs b) will climb c) climbed d) climb 6. You ... to speak English to your teacher. a) could b) must c) may d) will have 7.She sat down and made me … beside her. a) to sit b) sat c) to be sitting d) sit 8.My ... brother works as an English teacher at school. a) older b) elder c) oldest d) old 9.Find a mistake: She promised that she willlearnthe poem by heart. a) will b) learn c) the d) by 10. They spend their holidays in the country.
a) Вони проводять свої канікули у ceлі.
b) Вони проводять свої канікули в цій країні.
c) Вони проводили свої канікули у селі.
d) Вони провели свої канікули за містом.
V. Insert preposition where necessary. 1. The boy was leaning against the wall ... his hands ... his pockets. "Take your hands ...... your pockets," said his father sharply. 2. As she was getting ...... the car one ... her buttons fell ... . Although we were ... a hurry she insisted ... stopping to look for it. 3. Mr Jones is very keen ... punctuality. His lessons start dead ... time and you get ... terrible trouble if you're late. 4. The man ... the pipe and red hair is the brother ... the girl ... blue. 5. Don't leave your luggage ... the corridor. It'll be ... everyone's way. Bring it ... the compartment and put it ... the rack. 6. He sits ... his desk all day ... his head ... his hands. It gets ... my nerves. 7. ... mistake I opened Mary's letter instead ... my own. She was very angry ... me and said that I'd done it ... purpose. 8. I buy a newspaper ... my way ... the station and read it ... the train. By the time I get ... London I've read most ... it. 9. He was charged ... driving while ... the influence ... alcohol. 10. People who drop litter ... the pavements are liable ... a fine ... £50.
ВАРІАНТ № 10
I.Translate the text into Ukraine.
Investing in a limited company
When a limited company has started trading, you do not invest in shares by giving more capital to the company. You buy them from one of the Shareholders. If it is a private limited company, a shareholder can only sell shares if all the other shareholders agree. If it is a public limited company, shares can be bought and sold freely, usually at a Stock Exchange. If the company is doing well and paying high dividends, then you might pay more than the face value of the shares. If it is doing badly, you might pay less than the face value of the shares. The price you pay at the Stock Exchange (or to a shareholder) for your shares is their market value. If the company fails, it will stop trading and go into liquidation. This means that all the company's property and equipment (its assets) must be sold and the money from the sale will be used to pay its debts to its creditors.
The shareholders may lose the money they paid for the shares. If the company still does not have enough money to pay all its debts, the shareholders do not have to pay any more money. In other words, the shareholders' liability for debts is limited to the value of their shares. On the other hand, if you are an owner of a business which is not
limited, for example a sole proprietorship (owned by one person) or a partnership (owned by between 2 and 20 people) and your business fails, you will go bankrupt. In this case you might have to sell your own private possessions (your house, car, furniture, etc.) to pay all your creditors. In other words, sole proprietors and partners have unlimited liability for their firm's debts.
II. Answer the questions.
1. What can a shareholder do if it is a private limited company?
2. Where can the shares be bought? 3. Why is the company called "limited"?
4. Why is the company called "unlimited"?
5. To whom and for what are the founders of a company responsible
in the case of the company's liquidation?
II. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. 1.The first industrial revolution of the 18-th century (to involve) the replacement of human and animal muscle power of machines. 2.A technical project usually (to start) as a simple practical activity. 3.The Xerox Corporation (to invent) the first photo-copying machine by the end of the 1950-ths. 4.They (to have) opportunities to judge this experimental microcomputer by the end of the next summer. 5.Stop to do it! The program (to reload) now! 6.He (to perform) a routine work at 6 o’clock tomorrow. 7.She (to perform) her engineering project when somebody knocked the door. 8. The efficiency of parallel calculating system (to be increased) in the nearest future. 9.If supervision is assigned to modern technological processes the results may (to be) better than they are at present. 10.The operator not (to change) the software, yet.
III. Test. 1.Where … my boxing gloves? a)Is; b) are; c) have; d) has 2. … like to spend their summer holidays at the sea-side. a) I b) you c) they d) we 3. The children … their homework now. a) are doing b) were doing c) do d) did 4.Stamps ... in 1840 in Great Britain. a) are introducing b) were introducing c)have been introduced d) introduced 5.If you boil the water for a long time, it ... evaporate. a) would have b) will have c) would d) will 6.You ... to get the necessary books. a) must b) will have c) can d) may 7.He begged her not ... away. a) to have gone b) gone c) to go d) go 8.Their flat is rather ... for such abig family. a) small b) little c) big d) nice 9.Find a mistake:What will you be doing this timelast week? a) What b) be doing c) time d) last week 10. Her father teaches History at our school. a)Його батько викладає історію у нашій школі. b)Її батько викладав історію у нашій школі. c)Її батько викладатиме історію у нашій школі. d)Її батько викладає історію у нашій школі. V. Insert preposition where necessary. 1. You look worried. Are you ... some sort ... trouble? ~ Yes, ... a way. I'm ... debt and my creditors want to be paid ... the end ... of month, and ... the moment I haven't any money ... the bank. 2. The car skidded ... the tree, the windscreen was smashed and the driver was cut ... the face ... splinters ... glass.
3. Four people were injured ... the demonstration. Three ... them are students ... the university, the fourth is here ... holiday. That's him over there ... his arm ... plaster. 4. This picture was painted ... Picasso; and there's another Picasso ... the opposite wall. 5. The horse stopped suddenly and the rider fell ... . He couldn't get ... again without help and there was no one ... sight. 6. The children hastily changed ... bathing things and jumped ... the river ... shouts of delight. 7. We'll have to go ... car; we can't go ... bus ... account ... the bus strike. 8. Divers breathing a mixture ... helium and oxygen can work ... a depth ... 100 metres. 9 I'm tired ... working ... the suburbs and I've asked to be transferred ... our central branch. 10. Can I have Monday ... ? or Can I have a holiday ... Monday? I want to go ... my grandson's wedding.
ВАРІАНТ № 11
I.Translate the text into Ukraine.
SALES AND FINANCE DOCUMENTATION
When you travel by train, you need a ticket as proof that you have paid. When you send a consignment of goods by rail or road you also need a receipt to prove the transport company has taken the goods. A consignment note is both a ticket and a receipt. A consignment note for goods sent by air is called an air consignment note or
an air waybill. A consignment note for goods sent by sea is a Bill of Lading. A combined transport document is for goods sent by more than one means of transport.
When companies buy goods, they send an order to the suppliers. If the buyers are regular customers, the suppliers send the goods and then send an invoice. The buyers do not always pay the invoice immediately. Usually, the suppliers send a statement at the end of the month which shows all the transactions between the suppliers and the buyers in that month. The buyers then pay the amount outstanding on that statement.
Sometimes when the suppliers receive an enquiry, they send a proforma invoice. This is a quotation which looks like the final invoice so the buyers know how much they have to pay. If the suppliers do not know the buyers, the buyers might pay in advance against the pro-forma when placing their order.
II. Answer the questions. 1. Which documents are requests for payment?
2. Which documents are a sort of ticket for transporting goods?
3. Which document is a request for goods?
4. Which documents are reciepts for goods? 5.What does the buyer might do, if the supplier does not know him?
III. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form. 1.They (to provide) every building with running water, electricity and gas. 2.Students (to see) the construction of a plant with great interest last Tuesday. 3.The first pyramid (to be built) by the end of the 28-th century before Christ. 4.The glazier (to install) Euro windows from noon till 5 p.m. yesterday. 5.In future computers (to calculate) faster than at present. 6.The assemblers (to mount) the steel framework by the end of the next month. 7.Do not disturb me! I (to plaster) the wall ! 8.The construction team not (to weld) the joints, yet. 9.Laminate (to resist) severe conditions of exploitation by the end of the previous season. 10.He (to nail) sheets of decorative plastics all the next morning.
IV. Test. 1. It was … lovely summer day. a) the b) - c) a d) an 2. “ Are there any pictures On the walls of your office?” -- “ Yes, there`s one -- … Picasso”. a) the b) - c) a d) an 3. The waiting room was full of people and their … . a) bag b) a bag c) the bag d) bags 4. We could do this … with a computer than without it. a) easier b) more easier c) easily d) more easily 5. People … English all over the world. a) speaks b) speak c) has spoken d) had spoken 6. What … at? What`s the joke? a) are you laughing b) do you laugh c) had you laughed d) you laughed 7. He hasn`t come yet , … ? a) doesn`t he b) does he c) has he d) hasn`t he 8. It … since morning. a) rained b) rains c) has been raining d) had been raining 9.Find a mistake: Hedoesn`t often wrote sentences on the blackboard. a) He b) doesn`t c) wrote d) blackboard. 10. Algebra, the language of mathematics, consists mostly of signs and symbols. a) Алгебра, мова математики, включає в себе знаки та символи. b) Алгебра, мова математики, складається здебільшого зі знаків та символів. c) Алгебра, мова математики, складається зі знаків та символів. d) Алгебра, мова математики, була складена здебільшого зі знаків та символів. V. Insert preposition where necessary.
1. I've lived ... this street ... ten years.
2. He has lived ... 101 Cornwall Gardens ... 1966.
3. ... the age ... 18 he was sent to prison ... theft.
4. He was ... prison ... two years. ... that time he became interested ... pigeons.
5. There is a parcel of books ... you ... the table ... the hall. ~
Oh, they must be ... my brother. He always sends me books ... my birthday. 6. We heard that Bill wasn't ... arrest but was helping the police ... their enquiries. The police are interested ... a bank robbery which took place ... Bill's last holidays. 7. Much Ado About Nothing is ... Shakespeare, and you'll find more ... his plays ... the bookcase ... the corner. 8. As the child was too young to travel ... herself, they arranged ... her to travel ... the care ... a friend of the family. 9. Have you head ... John ... his return? ~ Yes, I had a letter ... Monday. He's thinking ... going back ... America. 10. Не bought a book ... English poems and gave it... his sister.