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I.Translate the text into Ukraine. Computers in Health Care and Medicine

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Computers in Health Care and Medicine

Doctors, nurses, and other medical practitioners have adapted to computers because they already depend heavily on specialized information to perform their jobs. Having a computer to store and retrieve that information is a natural extension of an already complex and information-intensive process. In addition, with today’s emphasis on government involvement and large-scale health-care providers, controlling costs requires technology to improve the efficient of administrative and patient record keeping and reduce expenses without sacrificing the overall quality of health care.

Intensive care units are an early example of computer-controlled patient

monitoring. At the bedside, critically ill patients are connected to a wide variety of sensors that measure vital signs such as heartbeat, breathing, and brain activity. If any of these vital signs change dramatically, an alarm is sounded and the appropriate life-saving techniques are administered.

Patient monitoring is not confined to the bedside. Some persons with illnesses that require constant medication can benefit from portable of implanted monitoring and control devices. Diabetics, for example, can wear an implanted insulin pump that monitor their blood sugar and releases precise doses of insulin to control the blood-sugar level.

Therapists who treat the needs of speech-, hearing-, and cognitive-impaired

persons can use computer technology to assist in the rehabilitation process. Such

computer-assisted therapy is getting a big boost from products that are designed

to run on personal computers. For example, Speech Viewer is a clinical tool for use by therapists who treat speech disorders or hearing disabilities that affect speech. By letting client and therapist view speech, SpeechViewer provides interactive feedback between speech sounds and the display. Clients can also practise manipulations components of speech in a game like environment.

Another product, Thinkable, is used to treat cognitive impairment or memory loss. Using computers, clients are prompted through clinical practice sessions that help improve memory, attention, discrimination, and sequencing. Such products can help individuals with disabilities achieve greater personal and professional independence.


II. Answer the questions.
1. Why have doctors, nurses, and other medical practitioners adapted to computers?
2. What are an early example of computer-controlled patient monitoring?
3. What can diabetics wear?
4. What technology can use therapists?
5. What product is used to treat cognitive impairment or memory loss?

III.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form.
1. My father (to like) to read newspaper and magazine in the evening.
2.They said that tomorrow at this time they (to come) to see you.
3.Tom (not to shave) this morning because he didn’t have time. 4.She already (to smart) her new job.
5.She (to be) at home at eight o’clock tomorrow. 6.We (to have) lecture from history tomorrow at 9 o’clock. 7.The typist (to type) the article by five o’clock. 8.I feel that the jury already (have/has) thought that you are innocent. 9. The government (was/were) not able to pursue the policy which had been promised before the elections. 10. The police (is/are) investigating the case now.

IV. Test.
1. I see … very handsome man. He is laughing at me.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
2. … news caused some excitement.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
3. … are very healthy.
a) carrot b) a carrot c) the carrot d) carrots
4. He is … of my friends .
a) the youngest b) young c) younger d) the young
5. The train … ten minutes late.
a) will b) was c) are d) were
6. When I arrived, Tom … on the phone.
a) talked b) talk c) will talk d) was talking
7. I … her for ages!
a) didn’t see b) haven’t seen c) saw d) don’t see)

8. I … for an hour.
a) have been waiting b) waited c) have waited d) wait
9.Find a mistake.
The plate was too hot to wastouching.
a) The b) was c) was d) touching.
10. He appears to be living in this area.
a) Здається, він живе у цьому районі.
b) Так вийшло, що він живе у цьому районі.
c) Напевно,він живе у цьому районі.
d) Мені здається, що він живе у цьому районі.

V. Insert preposition where necessary.

  1. The approach of the Modernist architects was to reduce buildings to pure forms, removing historical references and ornament ____favor of functionalist details.

2. Buildings displayed their functional and structural elements, exposing steel beams and concrete surfaces instead of hiding them _____decorative forms.

3. Architects such as Frank Wright developed organic architecture in which the form was defined ____its environment and purpose,

4. Many architects resisted ____Modernism, finding it devoid of the decorative richness of ornamented styles and as the founders of that movement lost influence in the late 1970

5. The preparatory processes for the design of any large building have become increasingly complicated, and require preliminary studies of such matters as durability, sustainability, quality, money, and compliance ____local laws.

6. Environmental sustainability has become a mainstream issue, with profound affect ____the architectural profession.

7. Building material is any material which is used ____a construction purpose

8. Apart ______naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic.

9. The use of these materials is typically segmented ____specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, plumbing, roofing and insulation work.

10. The tent is the home of choice among nomadic groups all ____ the world.



I.Translate the text into Ukraine.

Types of Computers

The broadest categories of computers are special purpose and general


Special-purpose computers are dedicated to only one function: control-ling

the machines in which they are embedded. They have been given a permanent set

of instructions. In effect, they have been preprogrammed to perform their spe-cific purpose.
For example, tiny, hidden special-purpose computers tell you what time it is

on your digital watch, control traffic signals, and inject fuel into your car’s engine as you drive. Some even speak to you, telling you that your car door is open

or that your car is low on gas. In your telephone, they remember numbers and dial

them for you at the press of a button.

Not all special-purpose computers are small. The navigational computers

aboard the space shuttle, the computers found in sophisticated military aircraft, and those found in medical diagnostic equipment are typical examples of medium- to large-scale special-purpose computers.

General-purpose computers differ from their special-purpose cousins by

being programmable; that is, their operation can be changed by altering the

instructions or programs they are given. They can be adapted to many situations

if given appropriate programs. For example, there are programs that can help store and organize data, sort data alphabetically (or any other way you choose), write letters and reports, and generate charts and graphics. Like special-purpose computers, general-purpose computers also come in a wide range of sizes and capabilities.

Some general-purpose computers, known as personal computers, are de-

signed for use by individuals, such as students, office workers, and executives.

Some are even small enough to carry around in your pocket or purse. A close

cousin of the personal computer is called a workstation. Although it resembles a

personal computer in appearance, it is used by scientists and engineers for technical applications that require more computational power. Much larger and far more expensive computers, called mainframes, are designed to process large amounts of data and to be shared by many different people in businesses, government agencies, and scientific and educational institutions. The fastest computers made are called supercomputers. They are used for weather prediction, computer animation, and scientific research. Their performance far outpaces that of even the largest and most powerful mainframe computers. Minicomputers are suitable for use in departments, branch offices, factories, and scientific laboratories.

II. Answer the questions.
1. What are the broadest categories of computers?

2. What functions can special-purpose computers perform?

3. What is the main difference between special-purpose and general-purpose computers?

4. What types of general-purpose computers do you know?

5. What are general-purpose computers designed for?

III.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form.
1. I just (to see) Jack returning from Kyiv.
2. Last Saturday she ( to wash ) the dishes from five till six.
3. Look! She ( to clean ) a very sick motley carpet at the moment.
4. By that time yesterday I (to iron ) all my clothes.
5. He said that TV documentary ( to begin ) before I ( to come ) home.
6. Tomorrow I ( not to sweep ) the floor at 8 a.m.
7. She ( not to read ) my letter by six o`clock the next day.

8. The crew of the plane (consist/consists) of four people.

9. His company (was/were) founded in 1996.

10. The party (was/were) in full swing. The music was playing, the company (was/were) eating and drinking.


III. Test.

1. He came to … dinner at the appointed time.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
2. When she smiled he saw … Patricia he had known.
a) the b) - c) a d) an
3. Put … on their place
a) scissors b) scissores c) scissor d) scissers
4. Our new car is small, so it uses … petrol, than our old one.
a) a little b) less c) the least d) small
5. Don’t worry. I … here to help you!
a) am b) shall be c) wouldn’t be d) had been
6. ‘Where is Jenny? ‘She … roses in the garden’.
a) has been planting b) plants c) has planted d) is planting
7. Look! Somebody … milk on the carpet.
a) had spilt b) was spilling c) has spilt d) have spilt
8. A visitor … for you since early morning!
a) has been waiting b) had been waiting c) being waiting d) have been waiting



9.Find a mistake.
Many new houses werebuilt in our city now.
a)Many b) were c)built d) city

10. Foreign language clubs give a lot for developing the general outlook of our pupils.
a) Клуби іноземної мови сприяє розвитку світогляду усіх учнів. b) Учні розвивають свій загальний світогляд у кубах іноземних мов. c) Клуби іноземної мови чимало дають для розвитку загального світогляду наших учнів. d) Клуби іноземної мови допомагають розвивати кругозір наших учнів

V. Insert preposition where necessary.

  1. It has been revived as a major construction technique ____the development of tensile architecture and synthetic fabrics.

2. Modern buildings can be made of flexible material such as fabric membranes, and supported ____a system of steel cables, rigid or internal (air pressure.)

3. The amount of each material used leads ____different styles of buildings

4. The deciding factor is usually connected ____the quality of the soil being used.

5. Larger amounts of clay usually mean ____using the cob style, while low clay soil is usually associated with sod building.

6. Rammed earthis both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils _____planks by hand.

7. Soil and especially clay is good thermal mass; it is very good ____keeping temperatures at a constant level

8. Homes built with earth tend to be naturally cool ____the summer heat and warm in cold weather.

9. Earthen walls change temperature slowly, so artificially raising or lowering the temperature can use more resources than _____say a wood built house, but the heat/coolness stays longer.

10. Some of these buildings have remained habitable ____hundreds of years.




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