Almost all retailing organizations from department stores to supermarkets are extremely competitive. To meet the pressure of competition, retail organizations are changing their structure from being organized around the flow of goods and services to being organized around the flow of information. Computers are helping to accomplish that change. Increasingly, retailers such as department stores and supermarkets are using computers to collect data about their sales and customers at the point of sale. Point-of-sale systems are computer-based devices located at the point at which goods and services are paid for. Scanners are input devices that examine a pattern such as a bar code and convert it into a representation suitable for processing. Supermarkets have long used scanners at checkout counters to record sales. In such an application, scanners reduce labour costs, make the checkout process more accurate by eliminating misreading of price tags and improper cash register reading, and move customers through the checkout line faster, thus enhancing customer service. The nature of customer service is not only changing, but it is becoming an ever more important part of the competitive retailing industry. Not only must a company employ friendly people to handle customer service, but it must also leverage technology to deal with customers. Computers help companies become more familiar with their customers’ needs and wants. For example, in addition to salespeople listening to and reacting to com-plaints about merchandise, some companies have information systems that permit salespeople to consult a computer while talking to a customer or drafting a letter of response. The computer can determine whether correct items are in stock and how soon they can be delivered, and can answer questions about how to use specific products. By storing customer, inventory, and product information and making it accessible for viewing on a computer screen, customer service is faster and more efficient. Hotels and restaurants also use computers to become familiar with their customer’s needs and wants. In hotels, front-desk systems retrieve a guest record when a credit card is passed through a special reader. Some larger hotels keep guest preference profiles on computer. When the guest checks in, everything is ready.
II. Answer the questions. 1. What structural changes are taking place in retailing? Why? 2. What purposes are retailing organizations using computers for? 3. What input devices have been long used in supermarkets? 4. What are the results of scanner application in supermarkets? 5. What problems are solved with help of the computer in customer service?
III.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form. 1. I (buy) a new house last year, but I (not sell) my old house yet. 2. When Ann (be) on her way to the station it (begin) to rain. 3. She (catch) the next train but it (not get) in till 9.00. 4. Her boss (look) up as she (come) in. 5. I (not have) breakfast yet. Why you (not tell) me last night?' 6. I (not see) you at the bus stop this morning. You (miss) the bus?' 7. Ann (go) to Canada six months ago. She (work) in Canada for a while and then (go) to the United States. 8. They (learnt/were learning/have learnt) the new words yesterday from three till seven. 9. It (rained/has rained/was raining) this week. 10. She (was having/had/ has had) a bath at seven o'clock last night.
IV. Test. 1. … very ugly woman was crossing the street. a) the b) - c) a d) an 2. Show me … telegram you received from him. a) the b) - c) a d) an 3. This old man bought five … a) sheep b) sheeps c)the sheeps d) a sheep 4. It was … day of the year . a) the wet b) wetter c) wet d) the wettest 5. He … this house last year. a) bought b) had bought c) will buy d) buys 6. She … when Jim entered the room. a) laughed b) was laughing c) laughs d) will laugh 7. He … already … the bridge. a) has built b) had built c) built d) will built
8. I … Ivan since 1989. a) knew b) had known c) have been knowing d) have known 9.Find a mistake. She said that she hadfinished report. a)She b) that c) had d)finished 10. I was glad to pass the tests. a) Я зрадів, коли здав тести. b) Я був щасливий від того, що здав тести. c) Я зрадів,коли успішно здав тест. d) Мені радісно здати тести.
V. Insert preposition where necessary.
Architecture is both the process and product ____planning, designing and construction.
Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as ____cultural symbols and as works of art.
3. Historical civilizations are often identified ____their surviving architectural achievements.
4. Architecture has to do ____the planning, designing and constructing form, space and ambience that reflect functional, technical, social, environmental, and aesthetic considerations.
5. Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects ____realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimating and construction administration.
6. ______to Vitruvius, the architect should strive to fulfill each of these three attributes as well as possible.
7. The most important aspect of beauty was therefore an inherent part of an object, rather than something applied superficially; and was based _____universal, recognisable truths.
8. Among the philosophies that have influenced modern architects and their approach ____building design are rationalism, empiricism, structuralism, poststructuralism and phenomenology.
9. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed _____a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials
10. Building first evolved ____the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available building materials and attendant skills).
ВАРІАНТ № 27
I.Translate the text into Ukraine.
Computers in Education
Learning can occur without computers, or, for that matter, without pencil and paper. But computers can serve as powerful assistants that allow imaginative approaches to teaching traditional subjects and motivate teachers and students to try new ways of information gathering and learning.
The oldest instructional application of computers is computer-assisted instruction (CAI), which provides instruction and drill and practice in basic computation and language skills. The basic philosophy of CAI involves a direct link between student and computer and the transfer of basic instructional decisions from teacher to curriculum developer. By using CAI, information is presented on a computer, students are asked to respond, and their responses are evaluated. If the student is correct, he or she moves on; if incorrect, similar problems are given until the correct response is elicited. CAI allows students to learn topics at their own pace through a series of computer displays.
Advocates of CAI argue that students who have not mastered basic skills can benefit from drill and practice, the computer helps to motivate the students, and it frees the teacher to provide individual instruction. Critics of CAI argue that drill-and-practice tasks can be done just as easily without computers, using, for example, flash cards or some other form of drill. Hundreds of studies have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of CAI; although the results concerning the effects of CAI are generally favourable, the research conducted provides little insight into how, what, and why students learn when they use CAI.
Now, rapidly evolving computer technologies are creating more options for interactive education. The term hypertext was coined in 1965 by computer populist Ted Nelson. Hypertext describes writing done in nonlinear fashion. Unlike print text, which is essentially sequential and linear, hypertext can link pieces of information and create multiple paths through text. When the non-linear text, along with still photos and illustrations, is combined with dynamic types of data such as sound, animation, and video, it is called multimedia. Multimedia products now span the entire range of education from preschool to higher education to in-house corporate training. Interactive titles include storybooks for children, math and science games, reference encyclopedias, and various levels of skill-training material ranging from maintenance and mechanics to anatomy and medicine.
II. Answer the questions. 1. What is the basic philosophy of CAI?
2. What are the computer capabilities in CAI?
3. What are the pros and cons in applying computers in education?
4. What new computer technologies are creating more options for in
5. What range of education do multimedia products span?
III.Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense form. 1. We (to wait) for you now. 2. We (to train) all the day yesterday. 3. She (to learn) English now. 4. We (to finish) school many years ago. 5. We (to help) you tomorrow. 6. They (to discuss) films yesterday. 7. The little girl (to brake) a cup. 8. Her brother (work) in Canada at present. 9. She always (dream) but (do) nothing to realize her dreams. 10. He (be) so suspicious to me at the moment. I wonder why. IV. Test. 1. …fat man sighed and climbed the tree. a) the b) - c) a d) an 2. … check was transferred to this bank a month ago. a) the b) - c) a d) an 3. You should pass the … to the clerk. a) date b) data c) datum d) datus 4. The dolphin is … than the shark . a) the most intelligent b) more intelligent c) intelligent d) intelligentier 5. She … the piano last year. a) buys b) bought c) has bought d) was buying 6. It … at noon. a) was raining b) rains c) rained d) would rain 7. I … that book twice. a) have read b) reads c) will read d) was reading
8. He … in Moscow for five years. a) lives b) lived c) has been living d) had lived 9.Find a mistake. He wasoffer some interesting work. a) He b)was c)offer d) interesting 10. I was glad to invite him to my house. a) Я зрадів, коли запросив його до свого будинку. b) Я був щасливий від того,що запросив його до себе . c) Я був радий запросити його до свого будинку. d) Я рад, що він запросив мене до себе.
V. Insert preposition where necessary. 1. As human cultures developed and knowledge began to be formalized ____oral traditions and practices, building became a craft. 2. It is widely assumed that architectural success was the product of a process of trial and error, _____progressively less trial and more replication as the results of the process proved increasingly. 3. Indeed, vernacular buildings make up most ____the built world that people experience every day. 4. In many ancient civilizations, such as that of Egypt and Mesopotamia, architecture and urbanism reflected_____ the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural. 5. Some examples of canons are found ____the writings of the 1st-century BCE Roman military engineer Vitrivius. 6. In many Asian countries a pantheistic religion led _____architectural forms that were designed specifically to enhance the natural landscape. 7. The widespread application of the pointed arch was to influence European architecture ____the Medieval period. 8. A revival of the Classical style in architecture was accompanied _____a burgeoning of science and engineering which affected the proportions and structure of buildings. 9. Meanwhile, the Industrial Revolution laid open the door ____mass production and consumption. 10. When Modern architecture was first practiced, it was an avant – garde movement ____moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings.