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Defining and non-defining

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1. Defining

A defining clause specifies which person or thing we mean. It cannot be separated from the person or thing it describes.

By 4.30, there was only one paintingwhich hadn't been sold.

2. Non-defining

A non-defining clause contains extra information. In writing it is separated by commas, and in speech, if used at all, is usually indicated by intonation.

By 4.30, which was almost closing time, nearly all the paintings had been sold.

3. Some of the points given below depend on the type of clause.

Which and that

1. These are alternatives in a defining clause, although which is felt to be more formal.

By 4.30, there was only one paintingthat hadn't been sold.

2. That is not normally used to introduce a non-defining clause.

The train,which was already an hour late, broke down again.

3. That cannot follow a preposition.

It was a service for which I will be eternally grateful.

4. That is often used instead of who in everyday speech in defining clauses. Do you know the girlthat lives next door?

Who and whom

1. Whom is the object form of who and is used formally in object clauses. He was a personwhom everyone regarded as trustworthy.

2. However, this is now felt to be excessively formal by most speakers and who is commonly used instead.

3. Whom has to be used if it follows a preposition.

To whom it may concern.

To whom am I speaking?

However, in everyday use, it is usual to avoid this kind of construction.

Who am I speaking to?

Whose

This means of whom. It is used in both defining and non-defining clauses.

Several guests, whosecars were parked outside, were waiting at the door.

Several guests whose rooms had been broken into complained to the manager

When and where

1. Non-defining

Here they follow a named time or place.

Come back at 3.30, when I won't be so busy.

I stopped in Maidstone,where my sister owns a shop.

2. Defining

When follows words such as time, day, moment.

There is hardly a moment when I don't think of you, Sophia.

Where follows words such as place, house, street.

This is the streetwhere I live.

Omitting the relative

This is possible in defining object clauses.

He was a person everyone regarded as trustworthy.



Sentences ending in a preposition or phrasal verb

As outlined in Who and whom above, it is common to end a defining clause with a preposition or a phrasal verb.

That's the house I used to livein.

I couldn't remember which station to get off at.

He's not someone who I reallyget on with.

 

Omitting which/who + be

It is may be possible to reduce a verb phrase after who/which to an adjectival phrase in a defining clause, especially to define phrases such as the only one, the last/first one.

Jim was the only one of his platoon who had not been taken prisoner.

Jim was the only one of his platoonnot taken prisoner.

By 4.30, there was only one paintingnot sold.

Which

1. A non-defining clause can comment on the whole situation described in the main clause.

There was nobody left on the train, which made me suspicious.

2. Phrases with which, such as at which time/point, in which case, by which time, in which event can be used in the same way.

I watched the play until the end of the first act,at which point I felt I had seen enough.

A warning sign 'Overheat ' may come on,in which case turn off the appliance at once.

Clauses beginning with what and whatever

1. What meaning the thing or things which can be used to start clauses.

I can't believe what you told me yesterday.

What you should do is write a letter to the manager.

2. Whatever, whoever, whichever can be used in a similar way.

You can rely on Helen to dowhatever she can.

Whoever arrives first can turn on the heating.

Non-finite clauses containingan -ing form

These are clauses without a main verb. The examples given here are non-defining. Note that the two clauses have the same subject.

1. Actions happening at the same time

Waving their scarves and shouting, the fans ran onto the pitch.

2. One action happening before another

Opening the letter, she found that it contained a cheque for £7000.

‡агрузка...

This type of clause often explains the reason for something happening.

Realising there wasno one at home, I left the parcel in the shed.

Both these types of sentence might begin with on or upon:

On opening the letter... Upon realising...

3. An event which is the result of another event

I didn't get wet,having remembered to take my umbrella.

4. Where a passive construction might be expected, this is often shortened to a past participle.

Having been abandoned by his colleagues, the Minister was forced to resign.

Abandoned by his colleagues, the Minister was forced to resign.

Royal Guard

Activities

1. Choose the most suitable words underlined.

a) What was the name of the person that /which bought your old car?

b) All the doors were open, that/which seemed rather odd.

c) I'll stay here till six, by that/which time Jane should have phoned.

d) Whatever/Whichever you do, don't press this red button.

e) This is the school which I used to go/I used to go to.

f) Driving carelessly/As he was driving carelessly, the police arrested David.

g) It seems odd that/what you should be here on holiday too.

h) This is Sophia, who/whom is taking over my job when I leave.

i) On the Sunday, that/which was my birthday, we went out for a meal.

j) The success of a shared holiday depends on who/whom you share it with.

2. Put one suitable word in each space.

a) Midway through the second half City scored their fourth goal, at which point United gave up completely.

b) There is one person to .......... I owe more than I can say.

c) It was the kind of accident for.......... nobody was really to blame.

d) .......... leaves last should turn off the lights.

e) Mary was late yesterday,.......... was unusual for her.

f) At 6.00,.......... was an hour before the plane was due, thick fog descended.

g) I don't know .......... told you that, but they were wrong.

h) The first time I saw you was .......... you answered the door.

i) Mrs Brown was the first owner.......... dog won three prizes in the same show.

j) I've just spoken to Sally,.......... sends you her love.

3. Rewrite each sentence, starting as shown, so that the meaning stays the same. Omit any unnecessary relative pronouns.

a) The manager noticed I had dropped my purse and called after me. Noticing I had dropped my purse, the manager called after me.

b) We were in a position which gave us no room for manoeuvre. The position ................................................................................

c) I was really proud of that moment.

It was ............................................................................................

d) I waited for him until 6.30 and then gave up.

I waited for him until 6.30, at ......................................................

e) We suggested a lot of things, which were all rejected.

Everything ...................................................................................

f) Jim used to be married to that girl.

That's the girl ...............................................................................

g) If someone understands this book, they are cleverer than I am.

Anyone ........................................................................................

h) A bumpy road led to the hotel.

The road which ...........................................................................

i) Most people are in bed at that time.

It's a time ......................................................................................

j) I won't tell you this again.

This ..............................................................................................

4. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals and so that the meaning stays the same.

a) I like Brenda, she's my kind of person. THAT Brenda is the kind of person that I like.

b) The whole summer was sunny and warm, for a change. WHICH

c) Jean was the first person I asked for advice. WHOSE

d) Not a single house in the street had escaped undamaged. WHICH

e) Then I realised that I had left my wallet at home. WHEN

 
 


f) I don't really approve of his proposal. WHAT

 
 


g) It is an event I would rather forget. WHICH

 
 


h) The police never caught the culprit. WHO

 
 


i) I have read all of her books but one. WHICH

 
 


j) The finder of treasure is entitled to part of its value. WHOEVER

 
 


5. Decide whether it is possible to leave out the word or words underlined in each sentence.

a) It was the first car that I ever drove, (possible)

b) He was the first man who landed on the moon.

c) She was the first woman who was elected to parliament.

d) Harry isn't the kind of person who gets on with everyone.

e) In the whole book there was only one chapter which interested me.

f) There is only one Greek island which I haven't visited.

g) It's the long winters here that really depress most people.

h) Do you like the person who sits next to you in class ?

i) The letter that arrived this morning contained bad news I'm afraid.

j) There is no one whom I would prefer to you as a co-driver.

6. Make one sentence from the sentences given, beginning as shown. Make any other necessary changes. Omit any unnecessary relative pronouns.

a) We eventually caught a train. It was one that stops at every station. The train (that/which) we eventually caught was one that stops at every station.

b) Carol slammed the door behind her. Her father had given her a car as a present. She drove off in it.

Slamming…...........................................................................................................

c) At the end of the street was a building. The street was crowded with shoppers. Tom had not noticed the building before.

At the end of the street,........................................................................................

d) Some people have just moved in next door. They have the same surname as some other people. Those other people have just moved out.

The people who have just moved in next door …................................................

e) I noticed that the door was open. I decided to go in. This turned out to be a mistake.

Noticing ...............................................................................................................

f) Everyone expects the Popular Party candidate to win the election. The candidate has been influenced by her advisers. She has announced that she will cut income tax by 10%.

Influenced by her advisers,..................................................................................

g) I listened to George patiently until he started insulting me. At that point, I told him a few home truths. He didn't like it.

I listened to George patiently until he started insulting me,..............................

h) Pauline asked me a question. I had no reply to it.

Pauline asked me ................................................................................................

i) He rushed out of the room. He was shouting at the top of his voice.

This was typical.

Shouting .............................................................................................................

j) Some people wanted travel scholarships. The end of the week was the

deadline. By then everyone had applied.

By the end of the week,.......................................................................................

7. Complete each sentence with a suitable word or phrase.

a) I wasn't sure who to address the letter to, so I put ‘The Manager’.

b) Most of the guests turned up two hours early, which ..........................by surprise.

c) Whoever......................... to last was probably the person who murdered him.

d) The book I............................ his birthday is one I enjoyed very much myself.

e) This cake was ................................................ left on the plate, so I am eating it.

f) There's a chance that I may be late, in......................................... phone you.

g) Everyone admires her. She's just the kind of person .............................. up to.

h) No one knows who she is. She is the only member of the gang............... remained a secret. i) After ten years with the firm. Brown was the only salesman .................. promoted, so he decided to find another job. j) This is the exact spot.......................................... an accident two years ago.

8. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word or words in capitals, and so that the meaning stays the same.

a) The dog that chases our cat belongs to those people. WHOSE Those are the people whose dog chases our cat. b) I can't remember the last heavy rain. WHEN IT

c) When she took up her new post. Professor Grant gave a party. ON

d) Do you get on with your next-door neighbour? WHO

e) The person who told you you were clever was kidding you! WHOEVER

f) I don't need anything else. GOT

 
 


g) I was not familiar with that kind of computer. WHICH

 
 


h) The police have no idea as to the whereabouts of the jewels. WHERE

 
 


i) The most important thing is not to panic. WHAT

 
 


j) I miss Jack more than anyone. THAT

 
 

 


9. Complete the conversation with who, that, whose, or where. If no word is needed, leave a space (—).

Zoe and Pat are planning a party during the school holidays.

ZOE: Well, who shall we ask to this party?

pat: Oh, not too many. Just a few people (1)..—... we can be relaxed with.

ZOE: Yes, I agree. So, who, for example?

pat: My cousin John, of course, and Carlo.

ZOE: Carlo? Who's he?

PAT: He's the Italian guy (2) who is staying with John's family.

ZOE: Oh, yeah. Is he the one (3)......................wallet got stolen when they were in London?

PAT: That's right. They caught the guy (4).............................did it, but he'd already spent all the money (5)..............................Carlo had brought with him.

ZOE: Poor Carlo. Perhaps the party will cheer him up.

PAT: It might, if we ask the girl (6)........................he's been going out with.

ZOE: Who's that?

pat: Celia's her name. She works in that cinema (7).......................they show all the foreign films.

ZOE: But will she be free on Thursday evening?

pat: Yes, it's her evening off. That's the reason (8)................I suggested Thursday.

ZOE: OK. Who else? What about Nicky and Cherry?

PAT: Are they the girls (9).............................you went to France with?

ZOE: Yes. If they bring their boyfriends, that'll be ten of us. But have you got a room (10).....................is big enough? My mother says we can't use our sitting-room because we made too much mess the last time (11).......................she let us have a party.

PAT: It's all right. We've got a basement (12)...................we store old furniture. If we clean it up, it'll be fine.

ZOE: Great. Let's go and have a look at it.

10.Match each situation with one of the sentences that follow.

A

1. I have three umbrellas. I bought one of them in Paris. That one needs repairing. a

a. The umbrella which I bought in Paris needs repairing.

b. The umbrella, which I bought in Paris, needs repairing.

2. I have one colleague. He works extremely hard. He has few friends. b

a. My colleague who works extremely hard is not very popular.

b. My colleague, who works extremely hard, is not very popular.

3. I have several aunts. One works in New York. She's getting married. ....

a. My aunt who works in New York is getting married.

b. My aunt, who works in New York, is getting married.

4. Peter made some sandwiches. They have all been eaten. You made some too. Your sandwiches have not been eaten. ........

a. The sandwiches which Peter made have all been eaten.

b. The sandwiches, which Peter made, have all been eaten.

5. There was only one park in this town. Someone has built over it. We used to play in the park when we were children.........

a. The local park where we played as children has been built over.

b. The local park, where we played as children, has been built over.

6. One of my French teachers helps me with my homework. The other one lives too far away.........

a. The French teacher whose house is near mine helps me with my homework.

b. The French teacher, whose house is near mine, helps me with my homework.

7. You met one of my cousins last summer, the one from America. He's coming to stay again.........

a. My American cousin who you met last summer is coming to stay again.

b. My American cousin, who you met last summer, is coming to stay again.

8. There were a lot of candidates in the presidential election. Three of them were women. The winner was one of them. She had campaigned for better housing conditions.........

a. The woman who led the campaign for better housing conditions has been elected

President.

b. The woman, who led the campaign for better housing conditions, has been elected

President.

9. Only my boyfriend sent me flowers, but I had some other presents, including a vase. I put the flowers in the vase.........

a. The flowers which my boyfriend sent look beautiful in my new vase.

b. The flowers, which my boyfriend sent, look beautiful in my new vase.

10. I took two cameras away with me. You lent me one of them. That's the one that got broken.........

a. The camera which you lent me has been broken.

b. The camera, which you lent me, has been broken.

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