Il pea.M em u ifJy uK/uu 4

:
  1. I. . 1
  2. I. . 10
  3. I. . 11
  4. I. . 2
  5. I. . 3
  6. I. . 4
  7. I. . 5
  8. I. . 6
  9. I. . 7
  10. I. . 8
  11. I. . 9
  12. Il pea.M em u ifJy uK/uu 1

OHaKo np11 pellleH1111 KOHKpeTHbIX npo6JieM o6eCTBeHHOro yc TpOHCTBa Memy r.B. lJiexaHOBbIM l1B. 11.JleHl1HblM cyeCTBOBaJIJ1 ce

pbe3Hble pa3JIJ1'Il1H, KOTOpbie B npeAABep1111 0KT.R6pbCKOH peBOJilOQJ1l1 nepelllJil1 B cTa1110 Henp11M11p11Moti 6opb6b1.TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIH JieraJib HbIH MapKCJ13M KaK Te'!eH11e COQJ1aJibHOH Mb!CJIJ1 HOCJ1JI BpeMeHHbIH,

COQJ10KYJibTYPHbI H xapaKTep, CBH3aHHblH c YBJie'IeHJ1eM JIJ16epaJibHOH l1HTeJIJIJ1reHQJ1l1 MapKCJ1CTCKJ1Ml1 J1 e.RMJ1 B nep110 KaHyHa peBOJilO

Ql1l1 1905 - 1907 rr. locJie ee nopameHHH JI116epaJibHaH l1HTeJIJI11reHQl1H

OTOJ.llJia OT MapKCJ13Ma, l1 JieraJibHbIH MapKCJ13M npeKpaTJ1JI CBOe cy eCTBOBaH11e.

CJieyeT TaKme OTMeTl1Tb, 'ITO B 3TOT nep110 B COQl10JIOr1111

HaKailJIJ1BaeTCH 60JiblllOH cpaKTJ1'IeCKJ1H MaTep11aJI, J.llJia OTpa6oTKa MeTOOB KOHKpeTHO-COQJ10JIOr11qecKoro aHaJIJ13a c l1CilOJib30BaHJ1eM

oc'i'11meHl1H CTaTJ1CTl1Kl1, eMorpacp1111 l1 pyr11x CMemHbIX l1CQJ1Il JIJ1H. B 1869 r. BbilllJia B cBeT pa6oTa l13BeCTHoro o6eCTBeHHoro e.RTe JIH B. B. Eepeu-<P.1tepoec?Cozo flo.1to:J1Ceuue pa6011.ezo 1C.1tacca e Poccuu>> .

 


B 3TOH pa6oTe aBTOp 0606ru;11JI 3HarnTeJibHbIH cTaT11CTl1'i ec1mi1: MaTep11- aJI B JIH' Hbie Ha6mo,n;eHl1R, Kaca10ru;11ecR co11aJibHOrO 113KOHOMl1'ieCKOro noJiomeH11R pa6ornx 11 KpecTbRH B pa3Jil1'iHblX ry6epH11Rx Pocc1111. 3a

MeTHblM co6b1T11eM B pa3B11T1111 co11aJibHOH MblCJil1 Pocc1111 6b1Jia ,n;Byx TOMHaR pa6oTa JO. Hucoua Cpaeuume.tibtta:i cmamucmU1ca Poccuu u 3anaauoeeponeiicKux zocy aapcme ( 1878 - 1880 zz.)>> , B KOTopoi1: aBTop npe,n;cTaB11JI 6oraTblH q>aKTl1'iecK11i1 MaTep11aJI o co11aJibHblX npoeccax B nocJiepecpopMHOH ,n;epeBHe. BoJibIIIOe BJil1RH11e Ha pa3Bl1THe co110JI0- r1111 B Pocc1111 oKa3aJia ony6JI11KoBaHHaR B 1899 ro,n;y KH11ra B. U.Jieuuua

Pa3eumue KanumQ.Jl.U3Ma e Poccuu. B nepBblH nep110,n; noRBJIRIOTCR TaKme KpynHble pa6oTbl pocc11i1:cK11x co110JioroB A. Bor,n;aHoBa, B. lliy JIRTl1KOBa, II.CopoK11Ha, K.TaxTapeBa, nocBRll.l;eHHble npo6JieMaM co11- aJibHOH CTpaT11cp11Ka 1111, Teop1111 KJiaCCOB.

BTopoi1: nep110,n; pa3BHTl1R co110Jior11qecKoi1: MblCJI11 B Pocc1111 xa paKTep113yeTcR HapacTaH11eM npoecca 11HcT11Ty110HaJI113a1111, np11- 06peTeH11eM COl10JIOrl1'ieCKOH HayKOH CTaTyca co11aJibHOro 11HCTl1TyTa. B 1918 - 1919 rr. B IIeTporpa,n;cKOM 11.HpocJiaBCKOM Yffl1Bepc11TeTax 6b1JI11 co3,n;aHbIKacpe,n;pbl co110Jior1111, BBe,n;eHa yqeHaR cTeneHb no co110JI0- r1111. B 1919 r.6b1JI yqpem,n;eH Co110Jior11qecK11i1: 11HCT11TyT. B 1920 r.B IIe



Tporpa,n;cKOM yH11Bepc11TeTe np11 cpaKyJibTeTe o6ru;ecTBeHHblX HayK 6b1- JIO C03,Zl;aHO COl10JIOrl1'ieCKOe OT,n;eJieH11e, BO rJiaBe KOTOporo CTaJIII11T11-

p11M AJieKcaH,n;poBl1'i CopoK11H (1889 - 1968) - KpynHblH yqeHblH 11 o6ru;ecTBeHHbl H ,n;eRTeJib, BHeCIIl11H cyru;ecTBeHHbl H BKJia,n; B pa3B11Tl1e oTe'ieCTBeHHOH 11 M11p0Boi1: co110Jior1111. II.A. CopoK11H -O,n;HH 113 JI11,n;e

poB rrpaBoro Kpb Jia napT1111 3CepOB, nocJie <I>eBpaJibCKOH peBOJil01111 1917 ro,n;a -ceKpeTa pb KepeHcKoro, c 1920 r.-npocpeccop IIeTporpa,n; cKoro yH11Bepc11TeTa, B 1922 r. B q11cJie 6oJibIIIOH rpynnblpocc11i1:cKoi1: l1H

TeJm11reH1111 no peII1eH1110 UK BKII(6) BblCJiaH 113 Pocc1111 3a rpaH11y. il\11JI 11 pa6oTaJI B ClliA, r,n;e 11 ony6JI11KOBaJI pR,n; KpynHblX pa6oT. O,n;11H 113 po,n;oHa qaJibHl1KOB Teop1111 co11aJibHOH CTpaT11cp11Ka 1111 11 COl1aJib HOH M0611JibHOCTl1(06 3Tl1X TeOp11RX peqb noi1:,n;eT no3me B COOTBeTCTBY lOll.1;11X pa3,n;eJiax). Ha BTopoM 3Tane npo,n;oJimaeTCR pa3B11T11e TeopeT11- qecKoi1: co110Jior1111. B 20-x ro,n;ax 113,n;aeTCR 06II111pHaR co110Jior11qec KaR JI11TepaTypa: Copo1CUtt II.A. 0ctt06bLCOUOJtOZUU (e 2-x mm., 1922 z.),

Xeocmoe B. M. OcuoebL couoJ1.ozuu. Y11,euue o 3a1Cotto.Mepuocm:ix 06-

Uf ecmeeuuozo npoecca ( 1928 z.), By xapuu H.A. Teopu:i ucmopu11,ec- 1COZO MamepuQ.Jl.U3.Ma. IIonyJ1.JipttbLU y11,e611.u 1C MapKcucmcKoii couo.!l.o zuu ( 1922 z.), CQ..11.bLHCKuii M. C. CoUQ..11.bttaJi :llCU3ttb .!l.'loaeu. Beeaeuue e .MapK cucmcK y10 couoJ1.ozu10 ( 1923 z.) 11 ,n;p. OcHOBHaR HanpaBJieH HOCTb 3Tl1X pa6oT COCTORJia B BblRBJieHl111 COOTHOIIleHl1R l1CTop1111 pyc CKOH COl10JIOr11'ieCKOH MblCJil111 C0110JIOrl111 MapKC113Ma, B CTpeMJieHl111

ccpopMy JI11pOBa Tb op11r11HaJibHYlO COl10JIOr1110 MapKCl13Ma 11 onpe,n;e Jil1Tb ee MeCTO B Cl1CTeMe MapKCH3Ma.

HapJI,Zcy c pa3pa6oTKOH TeopeT11'iecKHX BOnpocoB pa3BOpaq11BaJil1Cb 3MID1pl1'ieCKHe cooJiorH'iecKHe 11ccJie,n;oBamm.UeHTpaJibHOe MecTo B HHX 3aHl1MalOT 11CCJie,n;oBaHHR no coaJlbHblM 11 coaJibHO.-nCIDCOJIOrn'i eCK11M

npo6JieMaM TPY,n;a 116b1Ta pa6o-.:rn:x 11KpeCTb.HH. B3TOH o6JiaCTH HaJ16oJiee nJio

,n;OTBopHopa6oTaJIJ1AK racTeB,c.r.CTPYMJ1JIJ1H, A <I>.il\ypaBcKHi1: 11,n;p.BTOT


me nep110,n; aKTIIBHO paapa6aTbIBaJil1Cb COLl,l1aJibHbie npo6JieMbI ropo,n;a, Hapo

,n;oHaceJieIDtR l1Mmpal.l,l1l1(H.AHI. HCpHpOB, A ro,n;yJIOB, B.CMYJieBH'i 11,n;p.), co l.l,l1aJibHbienpo6JieMbIK)'JibT)TpbI(J1.3aropcKID1,H.TpomioBcKJ.rii, P.E.mi:aapoB).

B 30-x ro,n;ax MapKCl13M OKOH'iaTeJibHO YTBep,n;11JICR B Ka'ieCTBe l1,Z1;eOJIOr11qecKOH OCHOBbI 061.QeCTBa, COQl10JIOrl1R 6bIJia 06-bRBJieHa tj:>HJIO

cocpcKOH HayKoH. BbIJIO npoBoarJiarneHo, 'iTO 11cTop11qecK11i1 MaTep11a Jil13M -3TO l1eCTb COQl10JIOrl1R MapKCl13Ma, 11, CJie,n;oBaTeJibHO, 3Mill1pl1- qecK11e KOHKpeTHO-COQl10JIOr11qecK11e l1CCJie,n;oBaHl1R, KaK HeCOBMeCTl1- Mbie co cneQl1cpl1KOH cp11JiococpcKOH Teop1111, BbIBO,ll;l1Jil1Cb aa npe,n;eJibI

COQl10JIOrnl1.8TO 6b Jia TeopeTl1'ieCKaR npe,n;nOCbIJIKa paarpoMa COQl10JIO r111111ee noJIHoro yna,n;Ka B CCCP. IIpaKTl1'iecKaR me npe,n;nocbIJIKa yna,n; Ka CBR3aHa c l1,n;eoJior11ei1 TOTaJI11Tap113Ma. CoQl10Jior11qecK11e l1CCJie,n;oBa

Hl1R, KaK HayqHbie l1CCJie,n;oBaHl1R, on11paIDI.Ql1eCR Ha TO'iHbie cpaKTbI,6b Jil1 He HymHbI TOTaJI11Ta pHoMy pem11My' TaK KaK 0Hl1 BCTynaJil1 B npOTl1BOpe'il1R c nponaraH,n;OH TaK Ha3bIBaeMbIX COQl1aJil1CTl1'ieCKl1X 3a BOeBaHl1H. Haq11HaR c 3Toro BpeMeH11, ocyI.QeCTBJIReTCR l1,n;eoJior11aaQ11R BCeH 061.QeCTBeHHOH ml13Hl1,B TOM 'il1CJie l1HayK11. COQl10JIOrl1R KaK COQl1-

aJibHbIH l1HCTl1TYT noJIHOCTbID npeKpaI.QaeT cBoe cy1.QeCTBOBaH11e. OT

,n;eJibHbie ee npo6JieMbI pa3Bl1BaIDTCR B paMKax CMemHbIX ,Zl;l1CQl1IlJil1H: l1C TOp11qecKoro MaTep11aJil13Ma, ,n;eMorpacp1111, CTaTl1CTl1Kl1,IlCl1XOJIOrnl1.

Boapom,n;eHHe COLl,l10JIOrHH KaK HaYKl1Ha'iHHaeTCR B KOHQe 50-x -Ha qaJie 60-x ro,n;oB, Ha BOJIHe XpYI.QeBCKOH oTTeneJI11. B 3TOT nep110,n; 6b Jil1 npoBe,n;eHbI MaCllITa6Hbie COQl10JIOr11qeCKl1e l1CCJie,n;oBaHHR no l13yqeHl1ID BJil1RHHR HayqHo-TexH11qecKoro nporpecca Ha coQ11aJibHyID l1npocpecc110- HaJibHyID CTPYKTYPY pa6oTHHKOB, l1X OTHorneHHe K TPY.DY BoJibrnoe pacnpo CTPaHeH11e nOJiyql1JIOCOLl,l1aJibHOe nJiaHHpoBaHHe, cocraBJieHHe nJiaHOB co Ql1aJibHOro l1 3KOHOMl1'ieCKOro pa3Bl1Tl1R npOMbillIJieHHbIX npe,n;npl1RTl1H, KOJIX030B l1COBX030B11,n;ame HeKOTOpbIX ropo,n;OB. Bxo,n;e 3THX l1CCJie,n;oBaHHH 6bIJI HaKOnJieH 6oraThrn cpaKTH'iecKJ.rii MaTep11aJI; OTPa6oTaHbI MeTO,n;HKH co Ql10JIOrH'iecKoro l1CCJie,n;oBaHHR, np1106peTeHbI HaBbIKl1 npoBe,n;eHHR COLl,l10- JIOrH'ieCKHX l1CCJie,n;oBaHHH 6oJibllIHM KOJIH'iecTBOM COLl,l10JIOI'OB-CaMoyqeK.

B60-x ro,n;ax COQl10JIOrl1R BHOBb BOCCTaHaBJil1BaeT CTaTyc COQl1-

aJibHOro l1HCTl1TyTa. Bcepe,n;11He 1960 ro,n;a 6bIJIO coa,n;aHO nepBoe COQl10- JIOr11qecKoe yqpem,n;eH11e -OT,Zl;eJI COQl10JIOrl1'ieCKl1X l1CCJie,n;oBaHl1H B J1HcT11TyTe cp11Jiococp1111 AH CCCP l1Jia6opaTop11R coQ110JiornqecK11x l1C

CJie,n;oBaH11i1 np11 JleH11Hrpa,n;cKoM rocyH11Bepc11TeTe. B1962 ro,n;y 6bIJia

coa,n;aHa CoBeTcKaR coQ110Jior11qecKaR accoQ11aQ11R, a B 1964 ro,n;y Ha cp11- JiococpcKoM cpaKyJibTeTe MrY -Kacpe,n;pa KOHKpeTHo-coQ110JiornqecK11x l1CCJie,n;oBaHl1H.B 1969 ro,n;y 6bIJI coa,n;aH l1HCTl1TYT KOHKpeTHO-COQl10JIO r11qecKl1X l1CCJie,n;oBaH11H AH CCCP c oT,n;eJieHl1RMl1 B COID3HbIX pecny6-

JI11Kax l1KpynHbIX per110HaJibHbIX QeHTpax: CBep,n;JIOBCKe, HoBoc11611p cKe, JleH11Hrpa,n;e. c 1974 ro,n;a Ha'iaJI Bb XO,Zl;l1Tb cneQl1aJil1311pOBaHHbIH

:>1Cy p1u1.1t "Couo.1to2u'l/.ecKue ucc.1teaoeaHUJ1.. C 1988 r. o6paaoBaHbI coQ11- oJior11qecK11e cpaKyJibTeTbI B MocKOBCKOM, Jien11Hrpa,n;cKoM, CBep,n;JIOB CKOM, K11eBCKOM yH11Bepc11TeTax. BHaCTORI.Qee BpeMR cyI.QeCTByeT pR,n;

aKa,n;eM11qecK11x, BY30BCKl1x l1HeaaBl1Cl1MbIX COQl10Jior11qecK11x QeHTpOB, npOBO,n;RI.Ql1X llil1p0Kl1e 3Mill1p11qecK11e l1TeopeTJ.1'ieCKl1e l1CCJie,n;oBaHl1R B caMbIX pa3Jil1'iHb X o6Jiacnnc: 061.QeCTBeHHOH ml13HH.


0s;; mBO

x;ax; ?teJLOC m1iasi cucme.Ma

1/ II01aimusi, o6u+ecmea u cucme.M.bt, CO?f Ua.n.bHbtX cesi,aeu, CO?f UCI./l,b1i020 63aUMoaeucm6UR, CO?f UCI./l,b'libtX om1iOULe1iUU. Cucme.MHbtU aHa.n.U3 n6u+ecmee1i1iOU JICU31iU

2/ 06UfeCm60 C n03UlfUU COlfUCLJl,b1i020 aemep.MU1iU3.Ma U ifiY1i1ClfU01iCLJ1,U3.Ma

3/ KoHitenituR o6u+ecmea e uHaueuaya.n.ua.11te.

MHaueuay a.n.ucmuiec?Cue meopuu coitua.n.bHozo eaaUMoaeucmeusi,

 

1

IIoHRmusi, o6u+ecmea u cucme.11tbt, CO?f Ua.n.bHbtX cesi,aeii, COlf UCI./l,b'li020 ll3UUMoaeucm6UR, COlf UCI./l,b'JibtX om1iOULe1iUU.

Cucme.M.Hbtu aHa.n.ua o6u+ecmeeHHOU JICU31iU

Ha npoTJDKeHY:!Y:! acei1: Y:!CTOpY:!Y:! coY:!OJIOrY:!Y:! o,n;Hoii Y'.13 aamHeHlllY:!X ee npo6JieM 6bIJia npo6JieMa: 'ITO npe,n;cTaBJIReT co6oi1: o6ecTao? CoHo JIOrY:!R acex BpeMeH Y:! Hapo.n;oa Ilb TaJiaCb OTBeTY:!Tb Ha BOilpOCbl'. KaK B03- MO:lKHO c yecTBOBaHY:!e o6ecTaa? KaKOBbIMexaHH3MbI coHaJibHOi1: Y:!HTerpa Y:!Y:!, 06ecne'!Y:1Ba!O Y:1e coY:!aJibHbIH nopR,n;OK, aonpeKY:! orpoM HOMY MHoroo6pa3Y:!!O Y:!HTepecoa Y:!H,ll;Y:!BY:!,ll;OB Y:! coHaJibHb X rpynn? Pac CMOTpeHY:!e 3TOH npo6JieMbl Y:! RBJIReTCR Hamei1: 3a,n;a qei1: B 3TOH TeMe.

Ha'!HeM c Toro, KaK coHOJIOrY:!R TpaKTyeT nOHRTHe o6ecTBO.

3.,ll!OpKrei1:M paccMaTpY:!BaJI o6eCTBO KaK Ha,ll;blH,n;Y:!BY:!,ll;YaJibHY!O .n;yxoa HY!O peaJibHOCTb, OCHOBaHHY!O Ha KOJIJieKTY:!BHb X npe.n;cTaBJIHY:!RX.

Ilo M. Be6epy, o6ecTao - 3TO B3aY:1Mo.n;ei1:cTBY:1e JIIO,n;ei1:, RBJIRIOeecR

npo.n;yKTOM COY:!aJibHbIX, TO eCTb opY:!eHTY:!pOBaHHbl X Ha .n;pyrY:!X JI!O,ll;ei1:,

.n ;e.ti:CTBY:!H.KpynHb H aMepY:!KaHCKY:!H coY:!OJior T. IapcoHc onpe,n;eJIRJI 06- eCTBO KaK CY:!CTeMy OTH0lllHY:!H Mem.n;y JI!O,ll;bMY:!, CBR3Y!OY:!M Ha'laJIOM

KOTOpoi1: RBJIRIOTCR HOpMbl Y:! eHHOCTY:!. cTO'lKY:! 3peHY:!R K.MapKca, o6eCT

BO -3TO Y:!CTOpY:!'lCKY:! pa3BY:!Ba!OaRCR COBOKynHOCTb OTH0lllHY:!H Mem.n;y

JI!O,ll;bMY:!, CKJia,ll;bIBa!OHXCR B npoecce Y:!X COBMeCTHOH .n;emeJ!bHOCTY:!.

QqeBY:!,ll;HO, 'ITO BO acex 3TY:!X onpe,n;eJieHY:!RX B TOH Y:!JIY:! Y:!HOH CTene

HY:! BbipameH no.n;xo.n; K o6eCTBY KaK K eJIOCTHOH CY:!CTeMe 3JIMHTOB,

Haxo.n;RY:!XCR B COCTORHHY:! TCHOH B3aY:!MOCBR3Y:!. TaKOH no.n;xo.n; K o6e

CTBY Ha3bIBaeTCR CY:!CTeMHb M. OcHOBHaR 3a.zi;aqa CY:!CTeMHOro no.n;xo.n;a B Y:!CCJie,n;oBaHY:!Y:! o6eCTBa COCTOY:!T B 06'be,ll;Y:!HHY:!Y:! pa3JIY:!'lHbIX 3HaHHH no

noao.n;y o6eCTBa B eJIOCTHY!O CY:!CTeMy, KOTOpaR MOrJia 6bICTaTb Teo pY:!ei1: o6ecTaa.

PacCMOTpY:!M OCHOBHbi e npY:!HY:!Ilbl CY:!CTMHOro no.n;xo,n;a K o6e CTBy. ,ll;JIR 3TOro Heo6xo,n;Y:!MO onpe,n;eJIY:!Tb OCHOBHble IlOHRTY:!R. C111cTeMa

-3TO onpe,n;eJieHHbIM o6pa30M ynopR,ll;O'IeHHOe MHO:lKeCTBO 3JieMeHTOB,


B3al1MOCBR3aHHbIX Mem,n;y co6oi1: l1o6pa3ylOIJ.J;l1X HeKOTOpoe QeJIOCTHOe e,n;11HCTBO. BHyTpeHHIOIO np11po,n;y, co,n;epmaTeJibHYIO CTopoHy BCRKOW QeJIOCTHOW Cl1CTeMbI,MaTep11aJibHYIO OCHOBY ee opraHl13aQl1l1onpe,n;eJIR IOT COCTaB, Ha6op 3JieMeHTOB.

COQJtaJibHaR CHCTeMa -3TO QeJIOCTHOe o6pa30BaHHe, OCHOBHbIM 3JieMeHTOM KOTOporo RBJIRIOTCR JIIO,IJ;H, HX CBR3H,B3aHMO,IJ;eHCTBH R JI OTHOllleHHR. 3Tl1CBR3l1, B3al1MO,n;ei1:CTBl1R l1OTHOIIIeHl1R HOCRT ycTOW'il1-

BbIW xa paKTep l1BOCnpo113BO,Zl;RTCR B l1CTOp11'ieCKOM npoQecce, nepexo,n;n 113 noKOJieHl1R B nOKOJieH11e.

CoQHaJihuan CBR3h -3TO Ha6op cpaKTOB, 06ycJIOBJI11Ba10IJ.J;11x coB MeCTHYJO ,n;enTeJibHOCTb B KOHKpeTHbIX 06IJ.J;HOCTRX B KOHKpeTHOe BpeMR

,n;JIR ,n;ocT11meH11R Tex l1Jil1l1HbIX QeJiei1:. CoQ11aJibHbre CBR3l1ycTaHaBJil1Ba IOTCR He no np11xOTl1 JIIO,n;ew, a o6'beKTl1BHO. yCTaHOBJieH11e 3Tl1X CBR3ei1:

,Zl;l1KTyeTCR COQHaJibHbIMH ycJIOBHRMH, B KOTOpbIX m11ByT l1,n;ei1:CTBYIOT

l1H,Zl;l1Bl1,Zl;bI. CyIJ.J;HOCTb COQl1aJibHbIX CBR3ei1: npoRBJIReTCR B co,n;epmaH1111 l1 xapaKTepe ,n;ei1:CTBl1W JIIO,n;ew, COCTaBJIRIOIJ.J;l1X ,n;aHHYIO COQl1aJibHYIO o6IJ.J;HOCTb. CoQl10JIOrl1 Bbr,n;eJIRIOT CBR3l1 B3al1MO,n;ei1:CTBl1R, OTHOIIIeH11i1:, KOHTpOJIR, l1HCTl1TYQl10HaJibHbie l1T. ,n;.

CoQHaJibuoe B3aHMO,IJ;ei1:cTBHe -3TO npoQecc, B KOTopoM JI10,n;11

,n;ewcTBYIOT l1 l1CnbITbIBalOT B03,n;ei1:cTBl1e ,n;pyr Ha ,n;pyra. MexaHl13M co Ql1aJibHOro B3al1MO,n;ei1cTBl1R BKJIJOqaeT l1H,Zl;l1Bl1,Zl;OB, COBepIIIalOIJ.J;l1X Te l1Jll1 l1Hbie ,n;ei1:CTBl1R, l13MeHeHl1R B COQl1aJibHOW 06IJ.J;HOCTl1 l1Jll1 o6IJ.J;eCTBe B QeJIOM, BbI3bIBaeMbie 3Tl1Ml1 ,n;ei1CTBl1RMl1, BJil1RHl1e 3Tl1X nepeMeH Ha

,n;pyr11x l1H,Zl;l1Bl1,Zl;OB, COCTaBJIRIOIJ.J;l1X COQl1aJibHYIO 06IJ.J;HOCTb, 11, HaKOHeQ,

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2

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0611.1ecTBO KaK 1.1enocTHaS1 CMCT9Ma4 1


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3

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