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Sewing involves main steps: measuring, laying out the pattern, cutting, marking, stitching and pressing. For each of these steps there are special tools and supplies to make your sewing easier and help you complete your projects successfully.
Hand-sewing supplies are needles and pins. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles. Thimble protects your finger while hand sewing. Available in a variety of styles and sizes, it is worn on whichever finger you use to push the needle through the fabric. Pincushion provides a safe and handy place to store pins.
Needle threader eases threading of hand and machine needles.
Beeswax with holder strengthens thread and prevents tangling while hand sewing.
Measuring and marking tools. Transparent ruler allows you to see what you are measuring and marking. It also is used to check fabric grainline.
Yardstick (meterstick) should be made of smooth hardwood or metal.
Tape-measure has the flexibility helpful for measuring items with shape and dimension. Marking chalk is available in several forms; as powder in a rolling wheel dispenser, as a pencil, or as a flat slice. Chalk lines are easily removable from most fabrics.
Fabric marking pens are available in both air-erasable and water-erasable forms. Narrow marking tape is an alternative method for marking fabrics when other methods are less suitable.
Cutting tools. You should use cutting tools only for sewing. The best-quality scissors and shears are hot-forged, high-grade steel, honed to a fine cutting edge.
1) sewing scissors – pointed for trimming and clipping work. The two handles are the same size.
2) Shears – used for cutting fabrics. The two handles are shaped differently, to fit the hand comfortably.
3) Pinking or scalloping shears – used to cut a decorative edge that reduces raveling of the fabric.
4) Embroidery scissors – used for light detail work, like cutting threads, ripping stitches, and cutting buttonholes.
5) Electric scissors – powered by a battery or other source of electricity. These make cutting faster.
6) seam ripper – aids in removing stitches from fabric; lifts thread away from fabric before cutting.
7) Thread clippers – used for clipping threads quickly.
8) Rotary cutter and cutting mat – used to cut long, straight fabric strips quickly. Be sure to cut on the protective mat.
Bent-handled dressmaker's shears are best for cutting fabric shapes because the angle of the lower blade lets fabric lie flat on the cutting surface.
Sewing scissors have one pointed and one rounded tip for clipping threads and clipping seam allowances.
Pinking shears and pinking rotary cutters are used to finish seams. They cut fabric in a zigzag pattern instead of a straight line. In addition to your fabric, you will need many other items known as sewing supplies. These are supplies that become part of the garment. Thread, tapes and trims, elastics, beltings, and fasteners are all examples of sewing supplies.
Thread is a long strand of twisted fibers. When you buy thread, pull a length from the spool and examine it for evenness. Pull it to test its strength and stretch ability. Buy a thread type similar to your fabric. Use natural threads with natural fabrics.
Tapes and trims are long strips of woven, knitted, braided or lace fabric. Some stretch, and some do not. Some are only for decoration, and others are purely functional. You should choose a firmly woven tape, ribbon, or cording if its job is to prevent stretching. Choose a stretchable braid, lace, or ribbing if it has to stretch as the clothing is worn.
Elastic can be a single yarn or a woven or braided strip of fabric that stretches when pulled. Elastic comes in many widths. It is also made with different gripping power for different uses.
Belting and waistband stiffeners. Belting is a stiff band that can be covered with fabric to make a belt. There are also special waistband stiffeners. There are materials used to stiffen the waistband area of tailored pants.
Fusibles. This is a new category of sewing supplies. Fusibles are ironed into place. You can iron on patches, decorations, zippers, and hem tape. The fusible material on these items softens when it is heated. When it is soft it adheres to another fabric.
Fasteners close garments. Zippers, snaps, buttons, hooks and eyes, buckles, and nylon tape are all sewing supplies that are fasteners.
III Answer the questions:
1. What processes does sewing include?
2. What are hand-sewing supplies?
3. What do we use for measuring and marking?
4. What is the most widely used marking tool?
5. What is the difference between scissors and shears?
6. What other cutting tools were mentioned in the text?
7. What supplies have become the parts of the garment?
8. What supplies are used for decoration?
9. What are fasteners?
IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:
1. Every sewing step require……
2. Hand-sewing supplies are…..
3. With the help of…..you can measure the figure before making a pattern.
4. To measure on the fabric one usually uses…..
5. …..are scissors, shears, seam rippers etc.
6. Tapes and trims are……
V Find the English equivalents to the words:
Викройка, зшивання, прасування, наперсток, прозора лінійка, той, що витирається, держак, рухомий, мереживо, бельтинг
VI Make up sentences with the terms:
Special tools, a rolling wheel dispenser, cutting supplies, pinking shears, a zigzag pattern, elastics, belting, fusible.
VII Give definitions to the words:
Measuring, cutting, marking, stitching, seam allowance, sewing supplies.
VIII Translate the sentences into English:
1. Пошиття одягу включає в себе декілька основних кроків.
2. Кожен з етапів шиття потребує певних інструментів та швейного приладдя.
3. Засоби для ручного шиття різноманітні в формах, розмірах та стилях.
4. Для зняття мірок використовують гнучкий метр, а для створення викройки метрову лінійку.
5. Для маркування слід застосовувати такі засоби, щоб потім можна було витерти помітки.
6. Кравецькі ножиці застосовуються лише для розрізання тканини, а звичайні для викройки на папері.
7. Існує багато інших зручних і необхідних інструментів для розрізування.
8. Стрічки та застібки стали окремими частинами одягу.
9. Клейова тканина прикріплюється до частин одягу за допомогою праски та пару.
IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:
To involve main steps, special sewing supplies, hand-sewing supplies, measuring and marking tools, cutting tools, thread, tape, trims, elastic, fusible and fastener.
I Read and remember:
1. a blueprint – проект, план
2. a bust, a chest – бюст, груди
3. a waist – талія
4. a hip – стегно
5. circumference – обхват
6. ease – вільність, просторість, напуск
7. extra room – додаткове місце
8. yardage – кількість в ярдах
9. to estimate – визначати
10. a dart – виточка
II Read the text and define the main idea of it:
Patterns are "blueprints" for cutting and stitching clothing and accessories.
The bust or chest, waist, and hip measurements are used to determine pattern size. These three measurements are horizontal, representing body circumference or size. If one body measurement is usually large or small the pattern should be altered to fit this particular area.
Pattern figure type is related to the body's vertical measurements. Figure type refers to body build and height.
Pattern size is determined by exact body measurements. The garment made from a pattern, however, is larger than the body measurements. A small amount of extra room is added so a person can move and breathe freely in the clothes. Ease is the name given to the extra room built into a pattern for wearing comfort. After adding the minimum ease for comfort, style ease may be added. This is the amount of easy used in a design to give it a fitted or a loose and flowing appearance.
Pattern catalogues are of great help for dress-makers. All needed information can be found in the pattern catalogue. You will need to know the brand name, the pattern number, the pattern size, and sometimes, the pattern figure type. The name of the pattern company or brand name is on the corner of the pattern book. The four-digit number is the pattern style number. The available sizes are shown on the fabric yardage chart.
There is a wealth of information on the pattern envelope. The front of the envelope shows front views of the styles included in the pattern. Drawings show all seams, darts, and details, but it is hard to estimate the amount of fullness. For an idea of the true fullness, a photograph in the large catalogue may be more helpful.
The information on the front of the pattern envelope includes the prices, size, figure type, brand name, style number and style choices. There are some special features of the pattern. There may be an embroidery transfer, a sewing lesson, a designer style, a knit fabric requirement, or a quick or easy-to-sew design.
The back views, style description, and hemline widths on the envelope back also help you select a pattern. In addition the envelope back is your shopping guide or list. Suitable fabrics are suggested for the design. All yardage requirements for fabrics and supplies are listed. Special information, such as suitability for plaids or napped fabrics, is printed on the back of the pattern envelope.
The pattern guide sheets explain how to cut out the pattern and sew the pieces together.
Today, pattern pieces are well marked to help you identify, layout, cut, mark, and sew each piece. Some early pattern had no printed markings.
Pattern symbols tell you where to lengthen and shorten the pattern. A double line may be used to indicate the best place for lengthening or shortening. A note at the hemline may also provide this information. Pattern symbols also guide you in matching and stitching the pieces together. Matching symbols include notches, dots, squares, and triangles. Location guidelines may indicate the center front, elastic casing, pocket placement, buttonhole placement, trim placement, hem fold, and pleat fold and stitching lines.
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