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The human race universally wears articles of clothing-also known as dress, garments, or attire-on the body in order to protect it against the different climate conditions. In its broadest sense, clothing is defined as the coverings of the torso and limbs, as well as the coverings for the hands, feet and head. But people wear clothing for functional as well as social reasons. Apart from the practical functions of placing a piece of garment above the skin, wearing clothes also carries specific cultural and social meanings. There is a great variety of items in the wardrobe that people wear, demonstrate, love and care.
T-shirts are classic and versatile. It seems you can never have too many. It is necessary to select your knit fabric from the array of stripes, prints, and colourful solids available. To help you decide which pattern to buy, note the way the T-shirts fit the models. Some patterns are designed for an “oversized” look, others are meant to fit the form of your body more closely. Your pattern should have four pieces: front, back, sleeve, and neck ribbing. Some may also have a piece for sleeve ribbing.
The fit of the T-shirt will vary with the fabric’s degree of stretch. T-shirt patterns, designed for knits only, indicate the amount of stretch required of the fabric. For instance, “25% stretch crosswise” would indicate that 10 cm of fabric will stretch on the crosswise grain an additional 2.5 cm. You should always test the degree of stretch in the fabric, especially if you are making a close-fitting T-shirt.
T-shirts are the easiest to sew using 6 mm seam allowances. The pattern should be laid out and the fabric cut. You should place the T-shirt front over the back, right sides together, aligning the shoulder seam allowance edges, pinning them. Then it is necessary to stitch the front and back T-shirt sections together.
Pull-on skirts. Skirts with elastic waistbands are classic, comfortable, and easy-care. Straight or flared versions in varying lengths can be coordinated with a variety of sweaters or other tops for business, dress, or casual wear. Some patterns can be designed only for knits and generally fit the body closer, counting on the stretchiness of the fabric to allow you to slide the skirt over your hips. Patterns suitable for woven fabrics will include extra fullness. You may select a pattern with two pieces: a front and a back. An elastic casing at the waistline is formed from excess fabric length at the skirt top. The skirt itself may be constructed of two, three, or four sections, depending on whether or not there are center front or back seams. To construct a knit skirt an amount of fabric equal to twice the width of the elastic must be allowed above the waistline. Measure this distance from the waistline, and mark a new cutting line on your pattern.
Pull-on pants with elastic waists are easy to fit and easy to sew. When sewn in supple, lightweight wovens, such as rayon or microfiber, they are elegant enough for evening wear. For sportier looks, cotton, cotton blends, linen, or seersucker work well and can be paired with simple T-shirts or blouses.
Select a pants pattern with two main pieces: the front and the back. The elastic casing for the waist is formed from excess fabric at the top. This pattern will be good for pants without pockets.
Vests, in a variety of styles, enhance wardrobes by complementing skirts, slacks, or dresses. They can be worn over knit tops, turtlenecks, or blouses, to fit the occasion.
For easy sewing, you should select a loose-fitting, lined vest, and look for a pattern with two main pattern pieces: a front and a back. Good choices of fabric for a loose-fitting vest include cotton, cotton blends, rayon, linen, denim, wool crepe, wool gabardine, and corduroy. It is necessary to select lining fabric made specifically for that purpose, or use lightweight cotton or blends.
Vests have become the palette for a variety of artistic techniques. Add embroidery, beading, or painting to personalize your vest. Lining fabric is often used for both the inside and the outside of the vest back.
Wrap skirts are made from a rectangle of fabric; no pattern is needed. The rectangle size is determined from your own measurements; so the skirt is sure to fit. The upper edge is softly gathered onto a flat waistband, which is secured with a button closure.
A wrap skirt is a perfect candidate for a border-print fabric. The continuous design that runs along one selvage becomes the lower edge of the skirt. Other suitable fabrics include solid colors and small, nondirectional prints.
Unlined jackets.Collarless jackets are versatile additions to any wardrobe. Those that are loose-fitting and unlined, with drop-shoulder styling and patch pockets, are easy to make.
You should look for a pattern that includes pieces for front, back, sleeve, front facing, back facing, and pocket. These directions are for square bottom front corners.
As with any other project, the fabric of your jacket will determine whether it will be more suitable for casual, business, or dress. Cotton, cotton blends, and denim would be good choices to wear with jeans or casual slacks and skirts. Wool, wool blends, linen, and rayon work for business or dress. When you’re feeling really confident, you might even consider making a jacket of suit-weight silk.
Some jackets do not overlap at the front, but merely meet at the center. For these styles, you can add decorative closures.
III Answer the questions:
1. What kinds of T-shirts can one buy or sew?
2. What should a pattern of the T-shirt have?
3. Why is it important to test the degree of stretch of the fabric?
4. What are pull-on skirts like?
5. What fabrics are good for pull-on pants?
6. How can vests be worn?
7. What is advisable to choose for a loose-fitting vest?
8. Is it easy to sew a wrap skirt?
9. How does a fabric affect the style of the garment?
IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:
1. T-shirt patterns should have…..
2. T-shirt patterns indicate…..
3. Skirts with elastic are…..
4. Pull-on pants are…….
5. Vests can be worn……
6. The best fabrics for a loose-fitting vest are…..
V Find the English equivalents to the words:
Рукав, припуск на шов, вимірювати, вишивка намистинками, застібка, край, на підкладці, приколювати, трикотаж, талія.
VI Make up sentences with the terms:
Prints, a wardrobe, close-fitting, a front, a back, a cutting line, excess fabric, a waistband, to add.
VII Give definitions to the words:
Blend, facing, style, woven, embroidery, casual.
VIII Translate the sentences into English:
1. Легко вибрати футболку серед великого різноманіття трикотажних виробів.
2. Деякі вироби здаються більшими за розміром, але вони гарно і вільно сидять на фігурі.
3. Завжди враховуйте, як розтягується тканина перед тим, як викроювати.
4. Спідниця на резинці може бути прилеглого та вільного силуету.
5. Трикотажна тканина додає повноти фігурі.
6. Жилети комбінують зі штанами, спідницями та сукнями різних стилів.
7. Жилети оздоблюються вишивкою, намистинками та шкірою.
8. Основними частинами жилету є полочки та спинка.
9. В основному застібки жилетів – це ґудзики, блискавки, кнопки та різні декоративні петлі.
10. Деякі піджаки застібуються по центру або захльостуються.
IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:
To form a wardrobe, a T-shirt, a front and a back, a sleeve, a neck ribbing, skirts, pants, an elastic waistband, to select a pattern, to choose a fabric, to vary in styles, easy-sewing, comfortable to wear, a vest, a wrap skirt.
I Read and remember:
1. an asset – цінність
2. a liability – схильність
3. a shawl collar – комір-шалька
4. a shoulder pad – плечова накладка
5. pleated – гофрований, в складки
6. crucial – важливий, значущий
7. a yoke - хомут
8. a dolman sleeve – рукав типу “летюча миша”
II Read the text and define the main idea of it:
Unfortunately there are very few people who have perfect figures. That’s why it is very important to know all the assets and liabilities of your type, especially while designing and making clothes. Most women fit into one of the five figure type categories: hourglass, pear, inverted triangle, rectangle and cylinder. Let’s consider some of them.
The hourglass figure is characterized by a full bust and full hips with obvious waist definition. Look for patterns with diagonal seams, asymmetrical and wrapped stylings. Choose slightly tapered jackets with as many seams as possible. To avoid the sausage effect, jackets should never be too light. Narrow lapels and shawl collars narrow the figure with vertical style lines: avoid patch pockets on bust, hip or seat, as well as bulky or balloon style sweaters. Add a centre back seam on jackets and coats. The best jacket length is high hip.
The pear shaped figure is the majority with a few key tips one can give the illusion of top and bottom halves in perfect balance. Keep the eye emphasis from the waist up. Large earrings, interesting necklaces and beautiful scarves are excellent tools to lift the eye up to your better half. Shoulder-pads are a must. Full pleated or gathered trousers are better than straight leg, leggings or jeans cuts. Loose, man-type shirts, tunics and long loose sweaters can hide a multitude of sins. Pair these with tight fitting pants or a straight skirt and the full hip is hidden under the loose top. Semi-fitted or full cut jackets and coats are best for the pear shape.
The inverted triangle, sometimes described as “the wedge”, is characterized by broad shoulders and small hips. These women have the least style difficulty since this figure is the one designers love. Correct fit in the shoulder and neckline area is crucial. Avoid boat necks and yokes. Both raglan and dolman sleeves are flattering for detailing and diagonal lines. Full circle skirts and fanny wraps give balance and are worn well by the inverted triangle figure. The most flattering silhouette for this figure is a full bodice with a straight skirt.
Now you know the effective ways of drawing the eye toward the assets of the figure and away from the liabilities.
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