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Fibres Information

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  1. Agree or disagree with the following statements, using the strategies of speaking. Give additional information to prove your agreement or disagreement. Use the model.
  2. Exercise 13. Read the following information, get ready to define terms “neuron”, “nervous system”.
  3. Fabric information
  4. Information management
  5. Man-made and Synthetic Fibres
  6. MIS (management information systems)
  7. Read the dialogues. Point out new and important information for you
  8. Sociological research, sociological research program, social information, sampling, representativeness; hypothesis.
  9. Table 1. Evolution of the Information Industry.
  10. Text 1. General Information.
  11. Text A. Information Age: For and Against

Cotton. Cotton is the most versatile of the natural fibres and can be woven into a broad range of products. Cotton is a hollow cellulose fibre that comes from the seed of the cotton plant. The hollow nature of the fibre makes it very absorbent and able to wick moisture away from the body. Egyptian and Pima Cotton are primarily used in luxury linens because the lengths of these fibres are long enough to weave into a finer cloth. Although cotton does not have a natural luster it can be treated or woven to create a luster finish, it can take a dye well, or it can be bleached to a pure white. Cotton when properly cared for can be enjoyed for many years.

Linen. Linen is the oldest fibre used by a man and because of its wide spread use is reflective of the general terminology, “bed and bath linens.” Made from the fibres that grow in the stems of the flax plant, linen has the best ability to wick moisture away from the body and dries quickly. Linen is ideal to use in warmer and wetter climates. Although linen creases and wrinkles more than cotton, it is a stronger fibre than cotton and inherently lasts longer if cared for properly. Bedding made from linen becomes softer after continued use.

Micro fibre. Micro fibre is the finest of all man made fibres. Made from beech wood cellulose, micro fibre is highly absorbent and easy to care for. It has a silky texture and a natural luster that does not wash out. Micro fibre wicks moisture away from the skin better than any other fibre and dries quickly. Sheeting made from micro fibre is lightweight as well as cool and comfortable.

Silk. Silk is the finest and strongest of the natural fibres and is made of threads from the cocoon of the silk worm. Silk has been synonymous with luxury. Silk has excellent drape and a luxurious hand as well as being suitably absorbent. Most silk is washable, although dyes or finishes can make it necessary for it to be dry-cleaned. Because it is made mostly of animal protein, fabrics made from this fibre tend to be warmer if not finely woven. Silk has poor resistance to sunlight and can be damaged by moths.

Wool. Wool is the warmest of the natural fibres and is made from the fleece of sheep. Wool fibres are fine, strong and elastic though relatively short. Wool has the ability to create warmth without excessive weight. Wool has good resistance and recovery from wrinkling. It is also fairly resilient to water and once wet feels damp rather than soaked. Wool can be dyed easily but cannot be made pure white. Wool is prone to damage by insect pests and sunlight.


Silk Fabric

Silk fabric is widely regarded as the most luxurious textile on the planet. Its tumultuous history, rife with wars, secrecy, and centuries of trade, bears little resemblance to the fabric’s current reputation for being the epitome of high fashion.

The most abundant form of silk, a natural protein fibre, is cultivated from the cocoon of mulberry silkworm larvae. Silkworms lay eggs on special paper and eat only fresh mulberry leaves. Thirty-five days after hatching, the silkworms begin spinning their cocoons. Each cocoon yields 1,000 yards of raw silk thread, which is then spun to produce a “yarn” of silk. The process is time-consuming and delicate, which explains the high cost of silk. The fibre gets its brilliant shimmer from its structure, a triangular prism that reflects light at varying angles.

Another variant of silk, “wild silk”, is produced by caterpillars other than the mulberry silkworm, and can be harvested in captivity much like traditional silk. The color and texture of wild silk tends to differ from the cultivated variety, and the fibres are typically shorter, due to damage by the emerging moth. To preserve the long, silken strands of fiber in cultivated cocoons, the larvae inside is typically pierced with a needle, and the cocoon is unraveled without damage.

Silk’s textile origins date back to 6000 BC, when the wife of the Yellow Emperor, Xi Ling-Shi, went for a walk among damaged mulberry trees and noticed glistening threads attached to worms eating the plant’s leaves. Historians disagree about how long it took before Xi Ling-Shi realized the silkworms cocoons could be harvested into silk, but one version recounts the Empress dropping a cocoon into her tea and watching it unravel into silken threads. China maintained a monopoly on silk trade for thousands of years and orchestrated an intricate and famous trade system eventually extending as far west as Europe and Africa, which was known as the Silk Road. High-quality silk was also produced in Thailand, India and eventually Western Europe, but the material wasn’t introduced to America until the 17th century; early settlers simply could not afford the expensive cloth. Synthetics were later developed as a substitute for the luxurious feel of silk fabric, but they dyed poorly and lacked the shimmering quality of silk’s light-refracting prisms.

Today, silk fabrics are prevalent in every country: from Indian saris to French couture gowns, it has pervaded all cultures. Its low conductivity keeps one warm in the winter, while its great absorbency wicks moisture away during summer. The feel of silk fabric is unmistakable: smooth and luxurious, the fabric ripples like the surface of water. This quality makes it especially suitable for sexy lingerie and elegant dresses. It is a fabric reserved for special occasions, a cloth meant to enhance a moment.


COTTON is a cool, soft, comfortable, the principal clothing fibre of the world. Its production is one of the major factors in world prosperity and economic stability. Cotton "breathes". What would we do without cotton? Since cotton wrinkles, polyester was added to give it wash and wear properties for a busy world. In recent times, the consumer determined that polyester, although easier to care for, took away the cool from cotton and also added a "pilling" effect to cotton/polyester blends. Consumers now often request "100% Cotton". Permanent finishes also added to the all cotton fabric gave a wash and wear property to cotton. The cotton fibre is from the cotton plant’s seed pod. The fibre is hollow in the centre and, under a microscope looks like a twisted ribbon. "Absorbent" cotton will retain 24-27 times its own weight in water and is stronger when wet than dry. This fibre absorbs and releases perspiration quickly, thus allowing the fabric to "breathe". Cotton can stand high temperatures and takes dyes easily. Chlorine bleach can be used to restore white garments to a clear white but this bleach may yellow chemically finished cottons or remove colour in dyed cottons. Boiling and sterilizing temperatures can also be used on cotton without disintegration. Cotton can also be ironed at relatively high temperatures, stands up to abrasion and wears well.

Mercerized cotton is treated to permanently straighten the cotton fibres which then become smooth, rod-like fibres that is uniform in appearance with a high lustre. Cotton is often blended with other fibres such as polyester, linen, wool, to "blend" the best properties of each fibre.

HEMP is currently being used by designers in clothing. When thinking of hemp, the illegal plant, marijuana comes to mind. No, hemp fabric does not contain the narcotic chemical. Hemp fabric is made from the stems of the plant. The stems are processed to dissolve the gum or pectin and separate the fibres which are then processed again and woven into yarns and fabric. The finest hemp for fabric is produced in Italy. Hemp fabric is like linen in both hand and appearance. Hemp fabric withstands water better than any other textile product. It wrinkles easily and should not be creased excessively to avoid wear and breakage of the fibres.

RAMIE is also similar to linen and is a bast of plant fibre. It is natural white in colour, has a high lustre and an unusual resistance to bacteria and molds. Used in fabrics, and often mistaken for linen, it is extremely absorbent and dries quickly. Ramie has excellent abrasion resistance and has been tested to be three to five times stronger than cotton and twice as strong as flax. It is an inexpensive fibre from an East Asian plant and can be spun or woven into a fabric.

JUTE is a glossy fibre from a plant. It is seen most often in sacks, rope, twine, and as backing on carpeting.

LINEN is an elegant, beautiful, durable, the refined luxury fabric. Linen is the strongest of the vegetable fibres and has 2 to 3 times the strength of cotton. Linen table cloths and napkins have been handed down generation to generation. Not only is the linen fibre strong, it is smooth, making the finished fabric lint free. Fine china, silver and candles are enhanced by the lustre of linen which only gets softer and finer the more it is washed.

Linen is from flax, a bast fibre taken from the stalk of the plant. The lustre is from the natural wax content. Creamy white to light tan, this fibre can be easily dyed and the colour does not fade when washed. Linen does wrinkle easily but also presses easily. Linen, like cotton, can also be boiled without damaging the fibre.

Highly absorbent and a good conductor of heat, this fabric is cool in garments. However, constant creasing in the same place in sharp folds will tend to break the linen threads. This wear can show up in collars, hems, and any area that is iron creased during the laundering. Linen has poor elasticity and does not spring back readily.

SILK is the fabric that makes its own statement. Say "silk" to someone and what do they visualize? No other fabric generates quite the same reaction. For centuries silk has had a reputation as a luxurious and sensuous fabric, one associated with wealth and success. Silk is one of the oldest textile fibres known to a man. It has been used by the Chinese since the 27th century BC. Silk is mentioned by Aristotle and became a valuable commodity both in Greece and Rome. During the Roman Empire, silk was sold for its weight in gold.

Today, silk is yet another word for elegance, and silk garments are prized for their versatility, wearability and comfort. Silk is the strongest natural fibre. A steel filament of the same diameter as silk will break before a filament of silk. Silk absorbs moisture, which makes it cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Because of its high absorbency, it is easily dyed in many deep colours. Silk retains its shape, drapes well, caresses the figure, and shimmers with lustre all its own.

Contemporary silk garments range from evening wear to sports wear. A silk suit can be worn to the office and, with a change of accessories and a blouse, transform into an elegant dinner ensemble. Silk garments can be worn for all seasons.

Silk is elegant, versatile and washable. In the past, owning a silk garment meant not only the initial price of the garment but also the cost of dry cleaning. All silk is washable. Silk is a natural protein fibre, like human hair, taken from the cocoon of the silkworm. The natural glue, sericin, secreted by silkworms and not totally removed during manufacturing of the silk, is a natural sizing which is brought out when washing in warm water. Most silk fabrics can be hand washed. Technically, silk does not shrink like other fibres. Silk garments, however, can shrink if the fabric has not been washed prior to garment construction. When washing silk, do not wring but roll in a towel. Silk dries quickly but should not be put in an automatic dryer unless the fabric is dried in an automatic dryer prior to garment construction. A good shampoo works well on silk. It will remove oil and revitalize your silk. Do not use an alkaline shampoo or one which contains ingredients such as wax, petroleum, or their derivatives, as these products will leave a residue on your silk and may cause "oil" spots. If static or clinging is a problem with your silks, a good hair conditioner may be used in the rinse water.

Silk may yellow and fade with the use of a high iron setting. Press cloths and a steam iron are recommended. Silk is also weakened by sunlight and perspiration.

WOOL SPECIALTY FIBERS, although still classified as wool, are further classified by the animal the fibre comes from.

Alpaca fleece is very rich and silky with considerable lustre. It comes from the Alpaca.

Mohair is from the angora goat and is highly resilient and strong. Mohair’s lustre, not softness, determines its value. Mohair is used in home decorating fabrics as well as garment fabrics including tropical worsteds.

Angora wool is from the angora rabbit. This soft fibre is used in sweaters, mittens and baby clothes.

Camel hair is from the extremely soft and fine fur from the undercoat of the camel. Camel’s hair can be used alone but is most often combined with fine wool for overcoating, topcoating, sportswear and sports hosiery. Because of the beauty of the colour, fabrics containing camel’s hair are usually left in the natural camel colour or dyed a darker brown. Light weight and soft, it is said that a 22 oz. camel fabric is as warm as a 32 oz. woollen fabric.

Cashmere is from the Kasmir goat down. Separation of the soft fibres from the long, coarse hair is tedious and difficult, contributing to the expense of the fabric. The soft hair is woven or knitted into fine garments and can also be blended with silk, cotton, or wool.

Vicuna is the softest coat cloth in the world. The amount of coarse hair to be separated from the soft fibres is negligible and yields the finest animal fibre in the world. Vicuna is a member of the Llama family and is small and wild. Since it is generally killed to obtain the fleece, it is protected by rigorous conservation measures. This fibre is rare and very expensive, costing several hundred dollars per yard.


Shopping From Women’s Clothing Catalogue Is Convenient

Women’s clothing catalogue is available through the post as well as online. The collections in the catalogue features a number of things that include (among other things) swimwear, daily wear, sports wear, shoes, handbags, accessories, lingerie, evening dresses, collections and even clearance collections. These clearance collections in the women’s clothing catalogue offer value for money. In fact, the prices are cut drastically and this means that you can save a significant amount of money! However, the items may be available for a limited period only such as a day or during a special weekend.

Know your sizes

The women’s clothing catalogue offers a number of sizes such as small, medium, large, extra large and even in plus sizes. This makes it convenient for women to shop when they are sitting right at home.

Creation of an account before you start shopping

Signing up for the women’s clothing catalogue is extremely easy. In fact, it only takes a minute, or so, to do to it online. You can also order through the telephone if you so desire. For signing up, all you need is a valid email id where you would also be informed about the latest product offerings in the women’s clothing catalogue. Once you become a member, you can shop online on the women’s clothing website.

Shipping and handling charges are extra

Please check before hand for the handling and the shipping charges when you order from the women’s clothing catalog. In case you want the orders to arrive earlier, you may even have to pay premium charges for the order.

Return and exchange policy

It is better to choose the correct size and the color of the clothes and other products that you require from the women’s clothing catalogue. Read the return/exchange policy of the women’s clothing catalog before you send back the items. It may differ from company to company.



You can learn a few helpful tips in stitching seams. In addition, you can learn tips in seam allowances, as well as appliqué. Appliqué is the progression of using fabric or pieces and sewing them onto fabric. You sew the shaped pieces of the fabric onto your groundwork to shape a pattern or design. The appliqué steps include the machine and hand sewn styles. In short, you can use the steps to work through hand-sewn quilts, or machine made. Don't forget to learn more about needles, thimbles, thread, etc before you get started, so that you choose the best brands to complete your quilt.

You will need to stitch your pieces of fabric into the background. First, however you will need to prime the edges of your fabric pieces, or appliqué if you will. Turn the 1/4-inch "seam allowance" under the appliqué and stitch so that it meets with your backdrop. If you want to create a quilt in less time, try the "fusible webbing appliqué" style.

The key to making the appliqué is to learning turning steps to bring your seam allowances under your garment. You can use templates to create your patterns. You will need to start by cutting your appliqué shape out and shaping it side by side the lines you have marked.

Once you cut, the shapes turn the seam allowance under. You can do this by turning and basting, using glue stick, or freezing your paper. If your seam allowances are not flat at the curves, turn the seams in and around the curvatures to the upturned points.

Once you finish turn the seams or shapes at the corner, turning it up so that it meets the first point. Turn your seam allowances up and you are finished. It doesn't matter which side you turn the last seams up.

Once you start the appliqué, you can move to the freezing paper style. This style makes room for easy quilting. The finishing touches will even and smooth out, making you are grand quilt.

Freezing paper in quilters' term is "Freezer paper." You know the type of paper you purchase at your local grocery, and use to store your meat in the freezer. You can also use other types of paper.



A cuff is an extra layer of fabric at the lower edge of the sleeve of a garment covering the arms. The functional purpose of turned cuffs is to protect the material from fraying and, when frayed, to allow the cuffs to be repaired or replaced without major changes to the garment.

Cuffs may be made by turning back the material, or a separate band of material may be sewn on or worn separately attached by buttons or studs. A cuff may show an ornamental border, or have an addition of lace or other trimming.

Except on casual attire, shirt cuffs are generally divided down one edge and then fastened together, so they can let a hand through and then fit more snugly around the wrist. Some sweaters and athletic garments (both tops and pants) have cuffs that either contain elastic or are woven so as to stretch around a hand or foot and still fit snugly, accomplishing the same purpose.

Divided shirt cuffs are of three kinds, depending on how they fasten:

Button cuffs, also called barrel cuffs, have buttonholes on the one side and buttons on the other.

Link cuffs, which have buttonholes on both sides and are meant to be closed with cufflinks or silk knots. Link cuffs come in two kinds:

Single cuffs and double, or French, cuffs, Convertible cuffs may be closed with buttons or with cufflinks.

Trouser cuffs. Most trouser legs are finished by hemming the bottom to prevent fraying. Trousers with turn-ups ("cuffs" in American English), after hemming, are rolled outward and sometimes pressed or stitched into place. The main reason for the cuffs is to add weight to the bottom of the leg, to help the drape of the trousers.

Jacket cuffs. The buttons and buttonholes at the end of suit jacket sleeves are generally decorative and non-functional.


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