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Fabric information

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Selecting the right fabrics may seem like an overwhelming task. You may already know whether you want a solid colour, a printed pattern, or perhaps a multicoloured fabric. Do you need a fabric that can be laundered frequently? Do you want smooth or textured, stiff or drapable, lightweight or heavy? Some basic fabric knowledge will help you make choices.

Natural fаbrics are made from plant or animal fibres, spun into yarns: cotton, wool, silk, and linen are the most common. Naturals are often considered the easiest fabric to sew.

Cotton is used by people in almost every country in the world. You can find what a fabric is made by looking closely at the threads. You will see that cotton threads are even and rather round. The surface of the cotton fabrics has very fine hairs all over it. These can only be seen if it is held up to the light. Cotton fabric is often white, but to make it pretty it is often coloured, either all over or in a pattern. It is usually better to wear coloured materials, for colour helps to make people feel happy.

Linen looks like cotton, but it is stronger, firmer and often heavier. The threads are very smooth and round. No fine hairs can be seen on the surface. Linen is cooler to wear and more expensive than cotton. It can be used for clothing such as dresses or men’s coats, but it is more often used for such articles as tablecloths.

Silk is a beautiful fabric. It is soft and shiny. The threads of silk are so fine that it is hard to see each one separately. Silk is expensive and, although it is so fine, it stands up to hard wear when made into cloths of a fair weight. It is cool to wear and looks very beautiful. Wool is the best material to wear, for it is the warmest. Wool is very soft and springy. The surface of the fabrics is covered with very fine hairs. These tiny hairs help to make it so soft and warm. Wool is also much thicker and heavier than cotton, so that it keeps out the cold. But it is not so easy to wash as cotton. When it is washed badly, the springiness is lost and the wool is then hard and uncomfortable to wear. Woven fabrics have straight lengthwise and crosswise yarns. The pattern in which the yarns are woven gives the fabric its characteristic surface texture and appearance of wool. The outer edges of woven fabrics are called selvages. As a general rule, they should be trimmed away because they are often heavier than the rest of the fabric, and they may shrink when laundered or pressed. Grainlines are the directions in which the fabric yarns run. Strong, stable lengthwise yarns, running parallel to the selvages, form the lengthwise grain. The crosswise grain is perpendicular to the lengthwise grain and has a small amount of give. Any diagonal direction, called the bias, has a fair amount of stretch.



Knit fabrics consist of rows of interlocking loops of yarn, as in a hand-knit sweater, but usually on a finer scale. Knit fabrics are more flexible than other fabrics, and they all stretch. These features mean that garments made of knits require less fitting and offer more freedom of movement. When sewing with knits, select patterns that are specifically designed for knit fabrics.

 

III Answer the questions:

1. What questions will arise while choosing a fabric?

2. What are natural fibres made from?

3. What are cotton fibres look like?

4. What are the properties of linen?

5. What are silk fibres like?

6. What is wool made from?

7. What are wool properties?

8. Why do knit fabrics give more freedom?

 

IV Complete the sentences with the words from the text:

1. Before choosing a fabric think whether it is … .

2. Cotton fabrics have … on their surface.

3. Silk is … fabric.

4. Wool isn’t so easy to …, it can loose its ...

5. Linen is … than cotton.

6. Woven fabrics have … yarns.

 

V Find the English equivalents to the words:

Волокно, природній, м’який, блискучий, носити, прасувати, дорогий, різнокольоровий, ручна в’язка, тонкий

 

VI Make up sentences with the terms:

Animal fibres, round threads, surface, lengthwise yarns, crosswise yarns, springiness, printed pattern

 

VII Give definitions to the words:

Cotton, silk, linen, wool, knits, yarn, texture

 

VIII Translate the sentences into English:

1. Ви маєте знати, яку тканину і для чого обираєте.

2. Загальні знання про тканини допоможуть тобі в твоєму виборі.

3. Натуральні тканини виробляються з природних волокон: тваринних чи рослинних.

4. Хлопок має рослинне походження, він білий, але добре фарбується.

5. Льон – це міцна та дорога тканина.

6. Шовк – це оброблені волокна тутового шовкопряду, матеріал блискучий, дуже тонкий, але й важкий.

7. Вовну виготовляють з хутра різних тварин, тому вона дуже тепла та груба.

8. Щоб не втратити пружність вовни, потрібно правильно її прасувати.

9. Текстура тканини характеризується напрямком волокон.

10. Трикотажні тканини складаються з петель, тому вони більш вільні та гнучкі, ніж інші тканини.

 

IX Speak on the topic using the following words and word-combinations:

To select a fabric, to be made from, cotton, linen, wool, silk, knits, fine, smooth, soft, shiny, to wear, grainlines

TEXT B

I Read and remember:

1. wrinkle – зминатися

2. wood pulp – дерев’яна серцевина, м’якіть

3. hosiery – панчішно-шкарпеточні вироби

4. a flak vest – бронежилет

5. vital –життєво важливий

6. resilient – пружний, еластичний

7. to repel – відштовхувати

8. blended fibres – суміш волокон

 

II Read the text and define the main idea of it:

 


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